Distribution of Triatoma (Meccus) phyllosoma and Triatoma (Meccus) longipennis as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi in the state of Aguascalientes, Mexico and surroundings

Distribution of Triatoma (Meccus) phyllosoma and Triatoma (Meccus) longipennis as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi in the state of Aguascalientes, Mexico and surroundings

Susana Morales-Moran1, Eduardo Sánchez-García2 iD, Rosa Isela Chávez-Gómez1, Norma Adela Carrasco-Esparza1, Alberto Aguayo-Acosta3 iD, David Alejandro Hernández-Marín1,2* iD

1Laboratorio de Microbiología, Departamento de Microbiología, Centro de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, México, CP 20131, Tel +52-449-9108412. 2Laboratorio de Química Analítica, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México, CP 66455, Tel +52-81-83294110 ext 3652. 3Laboratorio de Bioquímica y Genética de los Microorganismos, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México, CP 66455, Tel +52-81-83763044. *dahernandez@correo.uaa.mx


Bajar cita (RIS): Morales-Morán et al., 2021 AyTBUAP 6(22): 1-15

Editado por: Jesús Muñoz-Rojas (Instituto de Ciencias BUAP)

Fecha de publicación: 08 abril 2021

EOI: https://eoi.citefactor.org/10.11235/BUAP.06.22.01

URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12371/13165

Referencia: Morales-Moran S, Sánchez-García E, Chávez-Gómez RI, Carrasco-Esparza NA, Aguayo-Acosta A, Hernández-Marín DA. Distribution of Triatoma (Meccus) phyllosoma and Triatoma (Meccus) longipennis as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi in the state of Aguascalientes, Mexico and surroundings. Alianzas y Tendencias BUAP [Internet]. 2021;6(22):1–15. Available from: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1VqtU2uWkLtKwdIBWiD7NjhfWxX6QuSoy/view


Chagas disease is transmitted by hematophagous triatomine insects of the Reduviidae family. These vectors tend to hide in dark and humid places in homes in the endemic areas, mainly rural in Latin America. The Mexican territory is considered a critical endemic area, in recent years; more than 34 species of triatomines have been described as carriers of the disease, mainly the genera Rhodnius, Paratriatoma, Eratyrus, Dipetalogaster, Belminus, Panstrongylus, Meccus, and Triatoma. In Aguascalientes and Zacatecas's states, the observationand capture of the Triatoma phyllosoma and Triatoma longipennis species have been reported over three decades. Recent studies show that both species belong to the genera Meccus. This work summarizes the capture, identification, and analysis of Triatoma (Meccus) phyllosoma and Triatoma (Meccus) longipennis species as vectors of Chagas disease in the towns of Palo Alto, El Terrero de la Labor, Temazcal, Piedras Chinas, La Labor, Ojocaliente, Malpaso, Las Cabras and the center of the municipality of Calvillo in the state of Aguascalientes, Apulco and Jalpa in the state of Zacatecas, during March to August of the year 2019. Of a total of 252 collected bed bugs, 44% presented positivity as a carrier of Trypanosoma cruzi. Simultaneously, the morphological identification showed that 66.66% corresponds to the M. longipennis species, and the remaining 33.34% is for the M. phyllosoma species.

Keywords: Chagas; Meccus phyllosoma; Meccus longipennis; Triatomines; Trypanosoma cruzi; Vector.


La enfermedad de Chagas es transmitida por insectos triatominos hematófagos de la familia Reduviidae. Estos vectores tienden a esconderse en lugares oscuros y húmedos en los hogares de las zonas endémicas, principalmente rurales de América Latina. El territorio mexicano es considerado un área endémica crítica, en años recientes; se han descrito más de 34 especies de triatominos como portadores de la enfermedad, principalmente los géneros Rhodnius, Paratriatoma, Eratyrus, Dipetalogaster, Belminus, Panstrongylus, Meccus y Triatoma. En los estados de Aguascalientes y Zacatecas, la observación y captura de las especies Triatoma phyllosoma y Triatoma longipennis se han reportado durante tres décadas. Estudios recientes muestran que ambas especies pertenecen al género Meccus. Este trabajo resume la captura, identificación y análisis de especies de Triatoma (Meccus) phyllosoma y Triatoma (Meccus) longipennis como vectores de la enfermedad de Chagas en las localidades de Palo Alto, El Terrero de la Labor, Temazcal, Piedras Chinas, La Labor, Ojocaliente, Malpaso, Las Cabras y el centro del municipio de Calvillo en el estado de Aguascalientes, Apulco y Jalpa en el estado de Zacatecas, durante marzo a agosto del año 2019. De un total de 252 chinches recolectadas, 44% presentó positividad como portador de Trypanosoma cruzi. Simultáneamente, la identificación morfológica mostró que el 66,66% corresponde a la especie M. longipennis y el 33,34% restante corresponde a la especie M. phyllosoma.

Palabras clave: Chagas; Meccus phyllosoma; Meccus longipennis; Triatomines; Trypanosoma cruzi; Vector.

3a) 6221 Morales-Morán et al., 2021 Suppementary figures.pdf


Chagas disease, also known as trypanosomiases, is a life-threatening anthropozoonosis caused by the blood parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It has been estimated that 8 million people are infected worlwide, and more than 65 million living in risk areas. This disease is transmitted mainly to humans and some mammals (dogs, cats, rodents, marsupials, and primates) through the feces or urine of blood-sucking triatomine Reduviidae family insects. However, human infections can also occur in non-endemic areas due to blood transfusions, congenital route, organ transplantation, international migration, laboratory accidents, and the ingestion of beverages or food contaminated by the feces urine of the Triatoma [1, 2, 3, 4].

Human infections by T. cruzi present two phases of development; phase one, it is also known as acute phase, lasting up to 3 months, presenting parasitemia, fever, Romagna's sign and headaches. On the other hand, phase two, also known as chronic phase, develops even 10 years after infection (30-35% of infected cases), the parasite produces amastigote nests in various organs and peripheral nervous system, causing cardiac, nervous and digestive disorders [5, 6].

Triatomines hide in holes and slots of poorly built houses; this is one reason why Chagas disease is endemic to rural areas of Latin America. Triatomines are active at night, and is when they feed. Transmission occurs primarily through contact with the feces or urine of triatomines infected with the parasite [7], causing health problems in several countries of the American continent [4], mainly in Mexico, Brazil, and Argentina [2, 8].

Mexico is considered a country inside the endemic zone for the Chagas disease, with an estimate of more than one million infected people. Likewise, various species of mammals stand out as carriers of the parasitosis, these include dogs, cats and domestic rodents, which makes it an essential zoonotic disease and increases the risk to human health. [9, 10]. In different states of Mexico such as San Luis Potosí, Jalisco, Querétaro, Estado de Mexico, Oaxaca, and Chiapas, higher seroprevalence has been reported to humans; however, cases of seropositivity to T. cruzi have been described in all of Mexico [3].

In two-thirds of the Mexican territory, around 34 species of triatomines transmitting Chagas disease have been described, and these belong to the genera Rhodnius, Paratriatoma, Eratyrus, Dipetalogaster, Belminus, Panstrongylus, Meccus, and Triatoma; of which the most reported species belong to the genus Meccus and Triatoma [10, 11, 12, 13].

Concerning the genus Meccus, the most important species as transmitters are M. bassolsae, M. longipennis, M. mazzottii, M. pallidipennis, M. phyllosomus, and M. picturata [11, 13]. Within these vectors, the Phyllosoma complex comprises six species of the genus Meccus; M. longipennis, M. mazzottii, M. pallidipennis, M. picturatus, M. bassolsae, and M. phyllosomus [14]. On the other hand, of the genus Triatoma, the most relevant species as transmitters of the parasite are T. gerstaeckeri, T. mexicana, T. rubida, T. barberi, and T. dimidiata [10, 11].

For the year 2019, the Mexican government reports that the species that transmit Chagas disease in Aguascalientes and Zacatecas are Meccus longipennis and Meccus phyllosoma (Supplementary figure 1) [15]. In previous years, the triatomine species Triatoma (Meccus) phyllosoma and Triatoma (Meccus) longipennis have been reported in the state of Aguascalientes and Zacatecas [11, 16, 17, 18]. The synonymy for the genera is explained in 2010, when Licón-Trillo et al. [19] reported the presence of Meccus phyllosomus longipennis = Triatoma longipennis in Mexican territory, and Rodríguez-Bataz et al., in 2011 [20] reported the same species as a carrier of T. cruzi in San Tadeo, Presa de Los Serna, Malpaso, Jatiche de Arriba and La Labor towns, in Aguascalientes,

Mexico. In the same year, Meccus longipennis was reported as a species distributed in Aguascalientes and Zacatecas [11, 21]. For the case of Triatoma phyllosoma, Cortés-Jiménez et al. in 1996 [22], reported his findings for Aguascaliente’s’ state and in 2006 Cruz-Reyes and Pickering-Lopez [23] reported presence of T. longipennis and T. phyllosoma in the states of Aguascalientes and Zacatecas.

This work's objective was to determine the distribution of Triatoma (Meccus) phyllosoma and Triatoma (Meccus) longipennis in various localities of Aguascalientes and Zacatecas and to establish the relevance of these triatomines as vectors of Chagas disease.


Collection areas

Triatomine collections were carried out in 9 towns in Calvillo's municipality, Aguascalientes (Figure 1); this geographical location has an average annual temperature of approximately 19.3 °C, with an average temperature increase to 23 °C between May and June [24]. It is known that the state of Aguascalientes has three types of climate: semi-dry temperate, semi-dry warm, and mild sub-humid with rains in summer. In these climates, the average annual temperature is 17.1, 20.1, and 14.5 °C, respectively, and the mean annual rainfall is 488, 579.1 and 688.3 mm, respectively. Particularly in Calvillo region (Aguascalientes) including all others Aguascalientes collection zones, the average annual temperature is 14-22 °C, and the mean annual average annual rainfall is 500-800 mm, the Apulco (Zacatecas) region the average annual temperature is 16-20 °C, and the mean annual average annual rainfall is 600-800 mm and finally the Jalpa (Zacatecas) region the average annual temperature is 14-24 °C, and the mean annual average annual rainfall is 600-1000mm [25, 26, 27]. The state's arid zone's vegetation comprises secondary scrub and grasslands; the temperate zone is home to different oak forests or mixed forests (oak-conifers). The tropical area is mostly covered by secondary subtropical scrub [28].

On the other hand, collections were made in the municipalities of Apulco and Jalpa, belonging to Zacatecas (Figure 1). These collection areas were selected due to the records and capture of triatomines in central and northern Mexico and the sighting reported by its inhabitants with the help of the community participation method [11, 19]. It should be noted that the state of Zacatecas has a mainly dry climate and has an average annual temperature of 16 °C and moderate variations maximum 35 °C and minimum 6 °C; the average yearly rainfall is 510 mm, with a maximum of 910 mm and a minimum of 314 mm [29, 30]. In its territory, six vegetation types are distinguished: thorn forest, tropical deciduous forest, Quercus forest, coniferous forest, xerophilous scrub, and grassland [31, 32]. The collections were carried out from March to August 2019; besides, they were carried out at a specific time from 20:00 to 24:00; this was due to tonight's behavior feeding triatomines [33, 34]. The capture was carried out under a security protocol, which consists of avoiding direct contact, this using gloves and tweezers [35, 36]. The places where the searches were carried out were in stone fences, barns, chicken coops, abandoned houses, and near corrals and resting places for cattle [37].

Figure 1. Collection locations in the states of Aguascalientes and Zacatecas, Mexico, the numbers correspond to location code in table 1.

Table 1. Locations and coordinates of the sampling carried out

Following the method of Rubio et al. [38], with some modifications, all the individuals obtained were placed in glass jars, which contained folded paper to minimize the triatomines' stress and try to simulate their habitat conditions. Each container was covered with gauze and held firmly with an elastic band to allow the triatomine to breathe. Each bottle was labeled with the corresponding coordinates. Also, it was worked in an approximate radius of 100 meters [39, 40].

Maintenance and feeding

To keep alive and ensure the prevalence of triatomines, they were fed with rabbit blood; for this, it was placed in a dorsal position, and the flasks with the collected individuals were placed on its abdomen. The feeding time lasted approximately 60 min, and the light feeding area was covered to simulate the conditions in which the vectors feed [33, 41, 42].

Microscopic examination of feces

Immediately after feeding, the specimens were handled, taking into consideration all biosecurity measures [35, 36], execute an abdominal-ventral massage to each of them to stimulate the excretion of feces; each sample collected was diluted with 20 μL of PBS (pH of 7.2). Subsequently, the search for the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite in its metacyclic trypomastigote stage was carried out through the microscopic review of each sample with the help of a bright-field microscope (Leica DM750) at 40X magnification (Supplementary figure 2) [35, 43].

Morphological identification of triatomines

Various morphological characteristics were considered to identify the species of the collected triatomines, such as length, convex, type of abdomen, hemeliters, the color of the convex bands, and their anal socket [44].


Table 1 shows the localities of the states of Aguascalientes and Zacatecas where the samplings were carried out, the sampled areas present a similar elevation above sea level (masl); above 1,300 m but below 2,000 m. In the same way, these localities are adjacent or close to each other. A total of 252 triatomines were collected between April and August of 2019, of which 87.2% belong to the state of Aguascalientes and 12.8% to the state of Zacatecas (Table 2). Two species of triatomines were identified in the collection areas, being Triatoma (Meccus) longipennis and Triatoma (Meccus) phyllosoma, this with their morphological help characteristics. After microscopic observation (40X) of fecal samples, positives for the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite were recorded. According to size (between 15 and 45 μm), shape (flagellate), and stage (metacyclic trypomastigote). It resulted in 110 positive triatomines that correspond to 43.65% of the total individuals collected (Table 2).

Table 2. Number of triatomines and species collected in the different locations

The triatomines identification showed that both species collected and identified are carriers of the Trypasonoma cruzi parasite. In M. longipennis, a 31.75% positivity was recorded, while for M. phyllosoma, it presented 11.90% positivity for the total number. In Las Cabras, a greater number of triatomines were found, being 61 total and 44 positives, and there is a higher prevalence of M. phyllosoma. Regarding the morphological identification of triatomines, 73% corresponds to the M. longipennis, while 27% corresponds to the M. phyllosoma.


Carrier vectors of T. cruzi (triatomines) are found mainly in Latin America's rural areas, being Mexico one of the countries with the greatest health problems due to these carrier insects [2, 7, 8]. It has been pointed out that the Mexican territory is considered endemic for more than 34 species of triatomines. Being, the genus Meccus and Triatoma species the most widely reported [10, 13]. Specifically, the Aguascalientes state is considered a place of a high risk of infection by T. cruzi due to the triatomes present in the area [45]. It is for the above reasons that it was decided to sample various rural areas of Aguascalientes and some nearby areas in search of triatomines.

Triatoma (Meccus) longipennis and Triatoma (Meccus) phyllosoma were found in the locations mentioned above. This information corresponds to what was reported in previous years regarding the sighting, capture, and identification of Aguascalientes species mentioned above and its surroundings [11, 16, 18, 19]. From the year 2010 [19], there is mention that the genus Meccus is synonymous or that it presents homology to the genus Triatoma; this happens again in 2012 [21]. But until 2019, Mexico's government reports Meccus longipennis and Meccus phyllosoma species in Aguascalientes and Zacatecas regions [15]. On the other hand, the specimens were collected between 1390 and 1950 masl. To this respect, it has been reported that the species different triatomine species carrying T. cruzi have been collected between 100 and 2360 masl in Mexican territory [11, 21, 46, 47], biotic characteristics consistent with this work.

It is essential to highlight that the different vectors of the Hemiptera family: Reduviidae, develop in a great variety of climates and temperatures; within the latter, the annual averages of the states where the collections were made oscillate between 14.5 and 20.1 °C with a record of average variations of up to 35 °C as a maximum [25, 26, 27, 29, 30]. Documents have determined that for the Triatoma dimidiata species, the sighting and capture have been reported in Campeche, Mexico. This state has an average annual temperature of 26 °C [48]; this is higher than that of the previously mentioned areas. For the Meccus pallidipennis species, its capture was recorded in Guerrero, Mexico, a state with an average annual temperature of 18 °C [49]. These temperatures are similar to the yearly averages of Aguascalientes and Zacatecas, Mexico.

Before morphological identification of the triatomines, microscopic observations of the feces were made to determine the presence of T. cruzi. The results indicate that 43.65% of the total triatomines were positive for T. cruzi. Specifically, it was recorded that Triatoma (Meccus) longipennis presented 31.75% positivity. While for Triatoma (Meccus) phyllosoma, there was 11.90% positivity. Molina-Garza [50] report that approximately 59% of the triatomines of the Triatoma gerstaeckeri species analyzed were positive for the T. cruzi parasite. Likewise, Salazar-Schettino et al. [11] mentioned different percentages of triatomines carries T. cruzi, 37% and 72% of positivity in Triatoma Barberi, 4.1% and 34% in Triatoma dimidiate, 25% and 85% in Meccus longipennis and, 6.6% and 53% in Meccus mazzottii. All these data were obtained from collections and records in various states of the Mexican Republic. The percentages mentioned are similar or higher than those obtained for the two species under study. Finally, it should be noted that in 1993 100% positivity was reported in the Meccus longipennis specimens collected by Rubio [51] (n = 46), Calvillo, Aguascalientes; however, our collections indicate a lower percentage of positive triatomines for T. cruzi. The latter may be due to the number of samplings carried out, the number of individuals analyzed, the collection schedule, a difference of more than 20 years between both studies and the collection time.


The 43.65% of triatomines collected in the present investigation were positives for T. cruzi. Triatoma (Meccus) longipennis and Triatoma (Meccus) phyllosoma were identified as potentially transmitting Chagas disease vectors. It is recommended that in these areas and their surroundings, these vectors be sampled regularly to establish adequate controls; such as fumigations, specific areas for domestic animals and the construction of houses. Also, carry out analyzes in its human inhabitants to verify seropositivity and carry out more studies of the non-human reservoirs of the areas under research.


The authors of the present work do not present any conflict of interest regarding the project developed and its writing. This project was financed with financial support from CONACYT donation number 41226. It was also supported with reagents, equipment and facilities from the Centro de Ciencias Básicas of the Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes.


To the citizens Alberto Martínez Juárez, Dionisio Viramontes Vera, and Rodolfo Valdivia Martínez for their community participation in noting the sighting of the triatomines in the collection areas, as well as for the help to access those places.

To the Departamento de Microbiología, Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes, for facilitating the maintenance and feeding facilities of the collected triatomines.

As well as the Biologist Rocio A. González Moreno for her collaboration in the morphological identification of the species under study.


[1]. Sales-Junior PA, Molina I, Fonseca-Murta SM, Sánchez-Montalvá A, Salvador F, Corrêa-Oliveira R, et al. Experimental and Clinical Treatment of Chagas Disease: A Review. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017; 97(5):1289–1303.

[2]. Nunes MCP, Beaton A, Acquatella H, Bern C, Bolger AF, Echeverria LE, et al. American Heart Association Rheumatic Fever Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing, Stroke Council. Chagas cardiomyopathy: an update of current clinical knowledge and management: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2018; 138:169–209.

[3]. Arnal A, Waleckx E, Rico-Chávez O, Herrera C, Dumonteil E. Estimating the current burden of Chagas disease in Mexico: A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological surveys from 2006 to 2017. PLOS Negl Trop Dis. 2019; 13(4): e0006859.

[4]. Lidani K, Andrade FA, Bavia L, Damasceno FS, Beltrame MH, Messias-Reason IJ, et al. Chagas Disease: From Discovery to a Worldwide Health Problem. F Pub H. 2019; 7:166.

[5]. Martino VS. Problemática sanitaria y social de la enfermedad de Chagas. Aporte de la medicina tradicional argentina. Dominguezia. 2012; 28:29-37.

[6]. Palmezano JM, Plazas LK, Rivera KE, Rueda VP. Enfermedad de Chagas: realidad de una patología frecuente en Santander, Colombia. MÉD.UIS. 2015; 28(1):81-90.

[7]. Pane S, Giancola ML, Piselli P, Corpolongo A, Repetto E, Bellagamba R, et al. Serological evaluation for Chagas disease in migrants from Latin American countries resident in Rome, Italy. BMC Infect Dis. 2018; 18(1):212.

[8]. Dias N, Carvalho B, Nitz N, Hagström L, Vital T, Hecht M. Congenital Chagas disease: alert of research negligence. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2019; 52: e20180069.

[9]. Salazar-Schettino PM, Bucio-Torres MI, Cabrera-Bravo M, Alba-Alvarado MC, Castillo-Saldaña DR, Zenteno-Galindo EA, et al. Enfermedad de Chagas en México. Rev Fac Med Univ Nac Auton Mex. 2016; 59(3):6-16.

[10]. Antonio-Campos A, Cuatepotzo-Jiménez V, Noguéz-García J, Alejandre-Aguilar R, Rivas N. Distribution of Triatomine (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Vectors of Chagas Disease in the State of Hidalgo, Mexico. J Vector Ecol. 2019; 44(1):179-186.

[11]. Salazar-Schettino PM, Rojas-Wastavino GE, Cabrera-Bravo M, Bucio-Torres MI, Martínez-Ibarra JA, Monroy-Escobar MC, et al. Revisión de 13 especies de la familia Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) vectores de la enfermedad de Chagas, en México. J. Selva Andina Res. Soc. 2010; 1(1), 57-81.

[12]. Rodríguez-Bataz E, Nogueda-Torres B, Rosario-Cruz R, Martínez-Ibarra JA, Rosas-Acevedo JL. Triatominos (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) vectores de Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 en el estado de Guerrero, México. Rev Biomed. 2011; 22:21-27.

[13]. Díaz-Garrido P, Sepúlveda-Robles O, Martínez-Martínez I, Espinoza B. Variability of defensin genes from a Mexican endemic Triatominae: Triatoma (Meccus) pallidipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Biosc Rep. 2018; 38(5): BSR20180988.

[14]. Rivas N, Sánchez‐Espíndola E, Camacho AD, Alejandre‐Aguilar R. Comparative egg morphology of six Meccus species and Triatoma recurva (Stål, 1868) Hemiptera: Reduviidae. J Vector Ecol. 2016; 41:135-141.

[15]. Salazar-Schettino PM, Brucio-Torres MI, Rojo-Medina J, Manuel-Valencia YV, Revuelta-Herrera MA, Chávez-Mendoza A, et al. Manual de procedimientos para la enfermedad del Chagas en México. Web. 14 August 2020.

[16]. Carcavallo R, Jurberg J, Lent H, Noireau F, Galvão C. Phylogeny of the Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae): proposal for taxonomic arrangements. Entomol Vectores. 2000; 7(Suppl. 1), 1–99.

[17]. Martínez-Ibarra J, Nogueda-Torres B, Seda-Gaspar G, Ambriz-Galván F, Cruz M, Martínez-Vargas M. Variability of the Biological Characteristics between Meccus longipennis (Usinger) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Populations under Laboratory Conditions. Southwestern Entomol. 2013; 38(4):653-664.

[18]. Martínez-Ibarra J, Nogueda-Torres B, Cárdenas-De la Cruz M, Villagrán M, De Diego-Cabrera J, Bustos-Saldaña R. Biological parameters of interbreeding subspecies of Meccus phyllosomus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in western Mexico. Bull Entomol Res. 2015; 105(6):763-770.

[19]. Licón-Trillo A, Balsimelli-De La Peña K, Acosta-Legarda M, Leal-Berumen I, Nogueda-Torres B, Martínez-Ibarra JA. Infección natural por Trypanosoma cruzi en triatominos del Centro y Norte de México. B Malariol Salud Amb. 2010; 50(2):311-314.

[20]. Rodríguez-Bataz E, Nogueda-Torres B, Rosario-Cruz R, Martínez-Ibarra JA, Rosas-Acevedo JL. Triatominos (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) vectores de Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 en el estado de Guerrero, México. Rev Biomed. 2011; 22:21-27.

[21]. Martínez-Ibarra JA, Nogueda-Torres B, Montañez-Valdez OD, Rocha-Chávez G, Tapia-González JM. Presencia de Meccus longipennis y Triatoma recurva en el estado de Durango, México. B Malariol Salud Amb. 2012; 52(1), 129-133.

[22]. Cortés-Jiménez M, Nogueda-Torres B, Alejandre-Aguilar R, Isita-Tornelli L, Ramírez-Moreno E. Frequency of triatomines infected with Trypanosoma cruzi collected in Cuernavaca City, Morelos, Mexico. Rev Latinoam Microbiol. 1996; 38(2):115-119.

[23]. Cruz Reyes A, Pickering-Lopez JM. Chagas disease in Mexico: an analysis of geographical distribution during the past 76 years- A review. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2006; 101:345-354.

[24]. Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática (INEGI), Cuaderno estadístico municipal. Calvillo, Aguascalientes. 2001. Web. 14 August 2020.

[25]. García E. Modificaciones al Sistema de Clasificación Climática de Köppen (para adaptarlo a las condiciones de la República Mexicana. 5ª ed. México: Instituto de Geografía, UNAM. 2004.

[26]. Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática (INEGI). Anuario estadístico de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos. Gobierno del estado de Aguascalientes. Aguascalientes, México. 2013.

[27]. Ruíz O, Espejel D, Ontiveros R, Enciso J, Galindo R, Quesada M, et al. Tendencia de temperaturas máximas y mínimas mensuales en Aguascalientes, México. Rev. Mex de Cien Agríc. 2016; 7(13):2535-2549.

[28]. Siqueiros-Delgado M, Rodríguez-Avalos JA, Martínez-Ramírez J, Sierra-Muñoz JC. Situación actual de la vegetación del estado de Aguascalientes, México. Bot Sci. 2016; 94(3):455-470.

[29]. Medica-García G, Ruiz-Corral J. Estadísticas Climatológicas Básicas del Estado de Zacatecas (período 1961-2003). INIFAP. 2004; 3:1-246.

[30]. Rodríguez-González, B., Pineda-Martínez LF, Guerra VH. Análisis de la variabilidad de las precipitaciones en el Estado de Zacatecas, México, por medio de información satelital y pluviométrica. Ing., Invest y Tecnol. 2018; 19(4):1-12.

[31]. Rzedowski, J. In Vegetation and vegetational history of Northern Latin America. En Geographical relationships of the flora of Mexican dry regions. Amsterdam: Elsevier Scientific. 1973.

[32]. Balleza JJ, Villaseñor JL, Ibarra G. Regionalización biogeográfica de Zacatecas, México, con base en los patrones de distribución de la familia Asteraceae. Rev Mex Biodiv. 2005; 76:71-78.

[33]. Lazzari CR, Pereira MH, Lorenzo MG. Behavioural biology of Chagas disease vectors. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2013; 108 (Suppl 1): 34–47.

[34]. Rosal GG, Nogueda-Torres B, Villagrán ME, de Diego-Cabrera JA, Montañez-Valdez OD, Martínez-Ibarra JA. Chagas disease: Importance of rats as reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas, 1909) in western Mexico. J Infect Public Health. 2018; 11(2):230-233.

[35]. García-Jordán N, Berrizbeitia M, Concepción JL, Aldana E, Cáceres A, Quiñones W. Estudio entomológico de vectores transmisores de la infección por Trypanosoma cruzi en la población rural del estado Sucre, Venezuela. Biomédica. 2015; 35(2):247-57.

[36]. Ardila-Roldán S, Ospina-Martínez ML, Beltrán-Durán M, Durán-Romero MA, Fuya-Oviedo P, Milena-Barrera S. Guía para la vigilancia por laboratorio de los Triatominos vectores de la enfermedad de Chagas. Instituto Nacional de Salud. 2017; 1:15.

[37]. Farfán-García AE, Angulo-Silva VM. Conducta alimentaria de poblaciones de Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) en una zona endémica y sus implicaciones epidemiológicas. Rev Salud Pública. 2011; 13(1):163-172.

[38]. Rubio C, Moncada LI, Rojas MA, García A. Comportamiento de Rhodnius robustus Larousse, 1927 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) durante su alimentación en condiciones de laboratorio. Biomédica. 2013; 33(2):205-13.

[39]. Bar ME, Oscherov EB, Pieri-Damborsky M, Borda M. Estudio transversal de la Enfermedad de Chagas en un área endémica de la Provincia de Corrientes, Argentina. B Malariol Salud Amb. 2010; 50(2):219-232.

[40]. Yoshioka K, Tercero D, Pérez B, Lugo E. Rhodnius prolixusen en Nicaragua: distribución geográfica, control y vigilancia entre 1998 y 2009. Rev Panam Salud Pública. 2011; 30(5):439–44.

[41]. Martínez-Ibarra JA, Alejandre-Aguilar R, Paredes-González E, Martínez-Silva MA, Solorio-Cibrián M, Nogueda-Torres B, et al. Biology of three species of North American Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) fed on rabbits. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2007; 102(8):925-930.

[42]. Padilla NA, Moncayo AL, Keil CB, Grijalva MJ, Villacís AG. Life cycle, feeding, and defecation patterns of Triatoma carrioni (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), under laboratory conditions. J Med Entomol. 2019; 56(3):617-624.

[43]. Pérez-España VH, Morales-Evangelista CL, Vázquez-Chagoyán JC, Valladares-Carranza B, Romero-Rortés T, Cuervo-Parra JA. et al. Caracterización molecular de aislados de Trypanosoma cruzi de triatominos recolectados en los municipios del Estado de Hidalgo, México. Nova scientia. 2019; 11(22):171-185.

[44]. Lent H, Wigodzinsky P. Revision of the triatominae (hemiptera, reduviidae), and their significance as vectors of Chagas' disease. Bull Am Mua Nat His.1979; Vol. 163:464-476.

[45]. Ramsey JM, Peterson AT, Carmona-Castro O, Moo-Llanes DA, Nakazawa Y, Butrick M, et al. Atlas of Mexican Triatominae (Reduviidae: Hemiptera) and vector transmission of Chagas disease. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2015; 110(3):339-352.

[46]. Martínez-Tovar JG, Rodríguez-Rojas JJ, Arque-Chunga W, Lozano-Rendón JA, Ibarra-Juárez LA, Dávila-Barboza JA, et al. Nuevos registros geográficos y notas de infección de Triatoma gerstaeckeri (Stål) y Triatoma rubida (Uhler) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) en Nuevo León y Coahuila, México. Acta Zool Mex. 2013; 29(1):227-233.

[47]. Schettino PMS, Wastavino GER, Piña JSR, Blanco MO, Bravo MC. Triatoma mexicana Herrich-Schaeffer (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) Descripción de la Genitalia Externa del Macho y Morfología Externa de la Hembra. EntomoBrasilis. 2013; 6(1):68-73.

[48]. Hernández JL, Rebollar-Téllez EA, Infante F, Morón A, Castillo A. Indicadores de infestación, colonización e infección de Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) en Campeche, México. Neotrop Entomol. 2010; 39(6): 1024-1031.

[49]. Olguin-Salgado FA, Pereyda-Ríos Y, Pineda-Rodríguez SA, Santiago-Dionisio MC, Sánchez-Arriaga J, Elvia Rodríguez-Bataz E. Presencia de Meccus pallidipennis (Stal, 1872) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) asociada a infección por Trypanosoma cruzi en perros en Tecapulco, Guerrero, México. Entomol Mex. 2016; 3:742−747.

[50]. Molina-Garza ZJ, Rosales-Encina JL, Galaviz-Silva L, Molina-Garza D. Prevalencia de Trypanosoma cruzi en triatominos silvestres de Nuevo León, México. Salud Pub Mex. 2007; 49(1):37-44.

[51]. Rubio-Moran R. Estudio de la subfamilia Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) en el estado de Aguascalientes. México: Talleres gráficos del gobierno del estado de Aguascalientes; 1993.

3a) 6221 Morales-Morán et al., 2021 Suppementary figures.pdf

ISSN: 2594-0627