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Volume 6, number 23
Cover, content and editorial board
In vitro study on phosphorus solubilizing fungi under different carbon and nitrogen sources
Physicochemical and microbiological characterization for the use of sludge from two wastewater treatment plants in Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico
Preliminary phytochemical study of the goat diet and determination of flavonoids in goat milk
Stomach cancer: risk factors, diagnosis and treatment
Rhizobacteria for the improvement of the corn crop (Zea mays). A promising technology for the production of Creole corn
Volume 6, number 22
Cover, content and editorial board
Editorial 6 (22) AyTBUAP. Microbial extracellular polymeric substances with flocculating properties: an alternative to the use of acrylamide copolymers
Distribution of Triatoma (Meccus) phyllosoma and Triatoma (Meccus) longipennis as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi in the state of Aguascalientes, Mexico and surroundings
In silico search for Quorum Sensing inhibitors and preclinical studies in Chromobacterium violaceum
Characterization of rhizospheric strains belonging to the genus Paraburkholderia sp. isolated from the northern highlands of the State of Puebla
Analysis of the satisfaction surveys carried out in a hospital pharmacy consultation. Results comparison
Volume 6, number 21
Cover, content and editorial board
Editorial 6 (21) AyTBUAP. The next pandemic: Multi-resistant to antibiotics bacteria
Microorganisms of interest for the agriculture of the future: biocontrol agents and nitrogen fixers
Molecular identification of Mycobacterium species isolated from patients with a clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis
Molecular identification methods for Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus
Aqueous plant extracts as germination inhibitors of Hemileia vastatrix urediniospores; coffee orange rust
Volume 5, number 20
Cover, content and editorial board
Editorial 5(20) AyTBUAP. Two thousand and twenty, a year marked by COVID-19, challenges and short-term prospects
Past and present links of BUAP Alliances and Trends and perspectives of the journal
Detection methods for SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19
Money as a source of SARS-CoV-2 contagion in Mexico
Description of the CRISPR-Cas system and its application as a point of care methodology in the detection of SARS-CoV-2
Review about the occurrence of triclosan in groundwater and trends for its removal
Second generation inoculant to increase the growth and health of garden plants
Diversity of non-photosynthetic bacteria and their metabolic processes associated with lichens
Volume 5, number 19
Cover, content and editorial board
Human milk contains oligosaccharides (OSLH) with a prebiotic effect. They are complex and have a wide structural variety. More than 130 different structures have been identified as part of the functional foods (FA) used by both the food and pharmaceutical industries. These OSLHs have been described as having a unique and important role in the growth and development of the child. Especially during the first months of life, these contribute to the establishment of the intestinal microbiota. In this context, due to their structure, OSLHs can act as receptors for viruses and bacteria, blocking their adherence to eukaryotic cells and therefore preventing infection. Additionally, OSLH are essential for the development of the newborn's immune system, but also for the protection and modulation of the immune response in the adult.
In general, oligosaccharides are essential for the healthy development of people and in times of COVID-19, multidisciplinary strategies are those that will safeguard the quality of life, trying to maintain a balance for a correct diet and a strengthened immunity. In this issue of Alliances and Trends BUAP 5 (19), 3 original articles and 3 reviews were published. The knowledge developed to date could serve as the basis for better agricultural production, better nutrition and stimulation of human health, but if this strategy is exceeded by a viral infection, an effective response against diseases must be implemented with the use of drugs and vaccines directed against the virus in question.
Keywords: OSHL, intestinal microbiota, BUAP Alliances, Trends.
Interaction among strains of phosphorus solubilizing fungi and different nitrogen sources on the phosphorus solubilization and mineralization
Rosa María Arias Mota* iD, Miriam Lagunes Reyes, José Antonio García Pérez, Yadeneyro de la Cruz Elizondo
Download citation (RIS): Arias y cols., 2020 AyTBUAP 5(19): 1-19
Publication date: August 27th 2020
Background: Phosphorus solubilizing fungi depend on the nutrients of the medium for their development and, according to the available nutritional sources, they use alternative metabolic pathway in the solubilization and mineralization processes. Objective: Evaluate the effect of interaction between two of phosphorus solubilizing fungi strains (alone and consortium) with different nitrogen sources on the phosphorus solubilization and phosphatase production at greenhouse level. Methods: The strains used, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium brevicompactum, both were inoculated into tomato plants Solanum lycopersicum. Different nitrogen sources (ammonium phosphate, urea and asparagine) and tricalcium phosphate were added to each plant. During a month and every two days, the soluble phosphorus content was quantified and the pH was measured. At the end of the month, the enzymatic activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases was measured. Results and discussion: The data obtained showed that A. niger strain with ammonium sulfate induced the highest concentration of soluble phosphorus and the highest activity of acid phosphatases on day 28. A negative relationship between soluble phosphorus and the pH of the substrate was detected; which suggested that phosphorus solubilization occurred mainly by the production of organic acids. The positive relationship detected between soluble phosphorus and phosphatase production suggests that phosphorous mineralization and solubilization occurred simultaneously. It is important to highlight that the presence of the fungi inoculated in the substrate of the plants was evidenced.
Keywords: Aspergillus niger, Penicillium brevicompactum, tricalcium phosphate, urea, asparagine, ammonium sulfate.
Growth enhancement of Huaquechula criollo peanut by rhizospheric bacteria applied individually or in consortium
Download citation (RIS): de Jesús-Ramos y cols. 2020 AyTBUAP 5(19): 20-40
Publication date: August 27th 2020
Peanut is a plant widely grown around the world. In this work some conditions to successfully germinate peanut seeds were explored. In addition, the ability of Azospirillum brasilense Sp7, Paraburkholderia unamae MTl-641, Pseudomonas putida KT2440, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAl 5 and Sphingomonas sp. OF178 to adhere to seeds, colonize the rhizosphere and stimulate the plant growth was explored; both alone or in consortium. Peanut seeds without sterilization and with tegument were the best to germinate. All the bacterial species explored were able to adhere to the seeds and colonize the rhizosphere of plants, rhizospheric colonization of Sphingomonas sp. OF178, A. brasilense Sp7 and P. putida KT2440 in consortium was higher compared to their individual colonization, suggesting that some bacteria increase their interaction capability in the consortium. Stem length was increased after individual inoculation of most bacteria. A. brasilense Sp7 increased the growth of plant roots and Sphingomonas sp. OF178 increased the root dry weight. Interestingly, the bacterial consortium increased both stem and root length as well as root dry weight, suggesting synergism between bacteria to enhance plant development. In the germination process, the seeds inoculated with the bacteria consortium showed less contamination by fungi with reference to non-inoculated seeds; it suggests, that biocontrol of phytopathogenic fungi that affect the seed during germination, could be a mechanism involved in growth promotion of peanut.
Keywords: Peanut, PGPR, Rhizosphere, Adhesion to seeds, Bacterial colonization.
Anxiety and depression in undergraduate students of natural and exact sciences at BUAP-Mexico
Download citation (RIS): González-Benitez y cols., 2020 AyTBUAP 5(19): 41-55
Publication date: August 27th 2020
Anxiety and depression are human neuropsychological diseases with high impact factor in academic performance. The aim of this study was to understand the prevalence of anxiety and depression among a population of college students in BUAP-México. We included 497 volunteer students enrolled within the natural and exact areas, of which 59.5 % were women and 40.5 % were men, ranging in age between 19-25 years old, without declared previous diagnosis or medical treatment. We used the Goldberg EADG scale to estimate precondition and condition levels of anxiety and depression neuropsychological disease. The results indicated that in women and men, the prevalence of anxiety was 64.4 and 48.2%, respectively, whereas for depression it was 54.4 and 49.7%, respectively. These results demonstrated a high prevalence of anxiety and depression among BUAP-México college students, with higher levels in women than in men. These results suggest that relationships between students and professors, in addition to administrative and directive personnel, should be should be reviewed in future research. Additionally, a shift in the focus of college pedagogical policies may be considered with the ultimate propose of avoiding attrition and increasing academic performance.
Keywords: Anxiety, depression, college students, scale Goldberg EADG.
Antivirals, therapies and vaccine candidates against the emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS-CoV-2)
Download citation (RIS): Escobar-Muciño y Gamboa-Pérez, 2020 AyTBUAP 5(19): 56-88
Publication date: August 27th 2020
The emerging outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread worldwide. Until now, there are not specific therapeutic agents against coronavirus infection. There are reported a limited number of these treatments with the potential to apply in the clinical environment, in many cases the new antivirals have been tested, by searching from compound libraries to carry out a screening to find an antiviral effect through in vitro (through cloning and molecular docking) and in vivo experimentation (in cell lines) and illness patients to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and in the future to cure sick patients. Reason why the purpose of the present study was to direct society in general and to inform the characteristics and mechanisms of antivirals and therapies used as proposals against COVID-19 disease. On the other hand, the pharmaceutical industries around the world are creating experimental vaccines to counteract the coronavirus due to the rapid spread of COVID-19. The companies that are developing the vaccines are in experimental phases III and IV, considering themselves the most advanced and produced by the companies Sinovac; the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine developed by Sinovac, the vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 of AstraZeneca investigated in conjunction with the University of Oxford and (United Kingdom), also the company La Moderna (United States) and finally Pfizer in collaboration with BioNTech (United States). All vaccines focusing on infection prevention and the possibility of a second wave of this pandemic. For these reasons, the technologies of certain vaccines were described in more detail, as well as the preclinical and the experimentation phases (I-IV).
Keywords: Antivirals, coronaviruses, coronavirus molecular targets, therapies, and vaccines.
Antivirulence therapy as a strategy against multidrug-resistant bacteria
Ixchell Y. Sedillo-Torres, J. Antonio Ibarra-García iD*
Bajar cita (RIS): Sedillo-Torres e Ibarra-García, 2020 AyTBUAP 5(19): 89-104
Publication date: September 2th 2020
The increase in the emergence of bacterial strains resistant to antibiotics commonly used for their treatment has become a global health problem that has been recognized by the WHO and that must be addressed immediately. Not doing it implies that humanity might arrive to a point in which the treatment of bacterial infections with conventional antibiotics would not be possible any more. It is estimated that this problem will become one of the main causes of death by 2050 and that, if previsions are not taken with new strategies to avoid them, these statistics may become real. In this work we resume the bacterial resistance mechanisms and some alternatives for their treatment are considered. Here we focused on the antivirulence therapy because we believe as a feasible auxiliary in the treatment of multidrug resistant bacteria. This one has as a main feature to inhibit or block the expression of virulence factors present in pathogenic bacteria without interfering in essential processes for bacterial viability.
Keywords: Antibiotics, antimicrobial resistance, antivirulence therapy, virulence factors.
The origin, molecular characteristics, infection mechanism, evasion of innate and adaptive immunity against SARS-CoV-2, symptoms and molecular markers of COVID-19
Download citation (RIS): Gamboa-Pérez y cols., 2020 AyTBUAP 5(19): 105-144
Publication date: September 6th 2020
The emerging outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the virus of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that to date has spread worldwide, has caused concern throughout society, because there were reported cases of COVID-19 critical patients with multiorgan failure as a consequence of acquiring a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Likewise, a cause of this health emergency, due to the high number of cases and deaths reported by COVID-19, the governments of the countries where this disease has occurred, asked citizens to stay in their homes to reduce the transmission. This situation has affected the daily life of the majority of human beings due to isolation due to the current pandemic and consequentlythe world economy has been affected, because only companies with essential activities have been able to continue in operation. This review aims to provide information on the origin of the emerging coronavirus, the physiological and molecular characteristics, the mechanism of virus infection, the relationship of SARS-CoV-2 with the ACE2 receptor, the innate and immune response of humans and the relationship with cytokine release syndrome. Also, various published studies were compared to obtain a consensus on the symptoms presented in COVID-19 patients in various human organs and the determination of immunological elements, which are reported as molecular biomarkers to obtain a faster and more efficient prognosis and the response of a COVID-19 patient.
Keywords: ACE2 receptor mechanism, coronavirus, COVID-19, molecular markers for coronavirus, molecular targets for coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2.
Volume 5, number 18
Cover, content and editorial board
Editorial 5(18) AyT BUAP
In these days you remembered our existence, in these days you remembered that there was a group of women and men doing science. Surely you were wondering why to train as a scientist, that is for quasi-crazy introverts. Today you ask: where are the vaccines for this pandemic? Where are the artificial respirators? Where are the much-needed face masks? Where are the drugs to end this agony? Where are the techniques for managing health staff?
The answers are simple and start from our questions: why do we do science without your government support? Why do we set up our laboratories with our own financial resources? How is our salary enough to train professionals, produce science and invent? Why do you invest so much in weapons when your managers fail and associate with organized crime? Why does your intellectual property system give preference to granting patents to foreigners and with us it takes more than 7 years to grant them? Why don't we have the opportunity to rejoin ourselves as teachers and scientists? Why have we had the same categories for 12 years?
To see more, download the PDF file.
miRNA let-7b inhibitors by treatment of diabetic retinopathy: evaluation patent US2019093106
Introduction: diabetic retinopathy is a clinical complication that affects to a 93 million people suffering from diabetes and is responsible for more hospitalizations than any other complication of diabetes. Authors of US2019093106 patent propose a method for treatment of diabetic retinopathy. Areas covered: US2019093106 describes a method that consists of the administration of inhibitor of miRNA let-7b, in patients with diabetic retinopathy; additionally describe a method to inhibiting the effects of increased levels or activity of miRNA let-7b. Expert opinion: The results pre-clinical trials support the therapy’s efficacy; however, the invention is not new considering art state, whereby, new studies will be necessary to determine other administration routes, e.g. topical, dose and time of administration.
Laparoscopic cystectomy in complicated hydatidosis
Alba Martos Rosa, Juan Enrique Martínez de la Plata, María de Gador López Martín
Introduction: Hydatidosis, also known as echinococcosis, is the infection produced by the larvae (hydatids) of the species of the genus Echinococcus. It is a zoonotic parasitosis caused by cestodes of the species E. granulosus and E. multilocularis, which produce unilocular and multilocular or alveolar hydatidosis, respectively. According to geographical distribution, E. granulosus is the most relevant cystic form in Spain. The E. granulosus life cycle needs two host to complete. The host becomes infected by ingesting herbivorous viscera containing the hydatid cyst. The natural history implies the rupture of the cyst in 50-90% of the cases, giving rise to anaphylactic shock due to its high antigenic load. The diagnosis is mainly indirect through serological and radiological techniques. Imaging tests help identify the location, size, and number of the lesions. The treatment of hydatidosis consists of the surgical removal of the cyst using invasive techniques or laparoscopy, punction-aspiration-injection-reaspiration (PAIR) technique under ultrasound control and / or pharmacological treatment.
Objective: To describe a clinical case of hydatid cyst and its drug-surgical management.
Case description: Patient with radiological diagnosis, by ultrasound and computerized axial tomography, of multivesicular cystic lesion admitted to the Hospitalization Unit for clinical-surgical management of hydatid cyst. Extraction is performed by laparoscopy, after preparation with scolicidal solution to decrease the risk of anaphylactic shock due to cyst rupture. Favorable evolution of analytical parameters. Antiparasitic drugs, albendazole associated with praziquantel, were used as support measures before surgery.
Conclusions: Surgical removal by laparotomy is the choice to control parasitic infection and reduce associated risks. The use of scolicidal solutions minimizes the risk of anaphylactic shock due to rupture of the cyst. The combination of PAIR and albendazole offers greater efficacy, a lower recurrence rate, less morbidity and mortality, and a shorter hospital stay. The association of praziquantel exerts a synergistic effect.
Biological role of genes located on a genomic island in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Mireia Tena-Garitaonaindia, Manuel Rubio-Gómez, Diego Ceacero Heras, Olga Martínez-Augustin, Abdelali Daddaoua
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an omnipresent Gram negative opportunistic human pathogen that is not considered part of the human commensal intestinal microbiota. However, depletion of the intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) after antibiotic treatment facilitates colonization of the intestinal tract by multiple drug P. aeruginosa resistant. A possible alternative to conventional treatments is based on the use of functional foods with prebiotic activity. The bifidogenic
effect of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) is well established; it has been shown to promote the growth of specific beneficial intestinal bacteria such as bifidobacteria. Previous studies of the nosocomial opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 have shown that FOS reduce the growth and formation of biofilms, due to a decrease in motility and exotoxin secretion. However, the transcriptional basis of these phenotypic alterations remains unclear. To address this question, an RNA sequence analysis (RNAseq) was performed that allowed us to detect the presence of a genomic island formed by 15 genes which are repressed in the presence of FOS. Previously, it was demonstrated by the functional analysis of isogenic mutants, that the genes PA0643, PA0644 and PA0646, located in this genomic island, encode proteins involved in growth, biofilm formation, motility. In this context, this work reflected the implication of these genes in the modulation of the inflammatory response.
Chronic gastritis and gastric cancer
Ana Luisa Galicia-Zamalloa, María Alicia Díaz y Orea
Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of mortality and the fifth leading cause of cancer worldwide. Similarly, chronic gastritis is a disease with high morbidity and mortality worldwide, whose main risk factor is Helicobacter pylori bacteria. The latter is diagnosed by endoscopy and histological confirmation, and since it is usually asymptomatic, there is a risk of metaplasia, dysplasia and cancer. One of the main strategies for the prevention of both diseases is the eradication of H. pylori.
Volume 5, number 17
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Editorial 5(17). Urgent changes in agricultural practices to mitigate the climate change
Without a doubt, one of the main problems facing the planet is environmental pollution, derived from human practices. The emission of industrial and automobile gases, as well as garbage are examples of the pollutants that are produced in cities every day, but in agricultural fields it also contributes strongly to environmental problems. In fact, the combined nitrogen added to the crops causes various adverse effects such as eutrophication, NOx production, acid rain and weakening of the ozone layer. It is imperative to carry out strategies to mitigate climate change, one of them is the use of beneficial microorganisms that stimulate plant growth and prevent too much nitrogen fertilizer from being used. Furthermore, these microorganisms can perform biological control against phytopathogenic fungi, preventing the use of anticancer compounds in agriculture. The implementation of beneficial microorganisms should not be limited to traditional agriculture, it should also have an impact on urban agriculture, more and more households must have plants in the cities, it should be a commitment by everyone to have plants from our trenches and contribute to the reversal of pollution. Riding a bicycle instead of a car, not using plastics (joining the de-lamination) and encouraging bioremediation initiatives are daily practices that we must urgently implement. For this reason, we invite everyone to join these practices immediately for a better coexistence with the other beings on this planet and for an environment more compatible with life.
In this issue we present 4 articles, the first is a review article that shows how to protect the tomato with the use of beneficial microorganisms without the use of agrochemicals. The second article is an original work that shows a strategy to bioremediate lead with water lily. The third article is a review related to the isolation and use of heavy metal resistant halophilic microorganisms in plants as a possible growth strategy in hostile areas. Finally, the last article performs a patent evaluation for the compound Liraglutide as a potential drug for the treatment of diabetic foot. We hope that this number of Alliances and Trends is a trigger for new projects from our readers and that they share this knowledge among their acquaintances. Recently, the journal was indexed in International Scientific Indexing (ISI) and Academic Scientific Resource (ResearchBib), therefore we invite the scientific community to submit proposals to Alliances and Trends for publication in Spanish and English. We are committed to the evaluation by experts in the different disciplines and to giving a quick response for the publication of the manuscripts.
Protecting the tomato: up to date biocontrol
Dulce Aideé García-Nieto, Vianey Marín-Cevada, Tlauiskalotl Montes-Reyes
The increasing agricultural activity has led to the use of different strategies for the control of phytopathogens that affect both the harvest process and the post-harvest level. The tomato is a fruit, which, due to its characteristics, is exposed to being attacked by various phytopathological agents (fungi, bacteria, nematodes, etc.) which causes significant losses worldwide. However, chemical agents have been used as a first option and the excessive use of these has left havoc in the environment, as well as in human health. Knowing the consequences of this overuse of chemicals, the need arises to seek alternatives that ensure protection to agriculture, but in turn have no consequences on the environment. This has driven the search and development of new alternatives to chemical agents. Alternatives of which biocontrol has stood out in recent years. Therefore, in the present work it is intended to make a review of different biocontrol methods, as well as their advantages and microorganisms on which they act. Leaving open the development of new strategies that help the protection of the tomato.
Lead bioremediation model using water lily
Antonio Miguel-Barrera, Dolores Castañeda-Antonio, Juana Deysi Santamaría-Juárez, José Antonio Munive-Hernández, Antonio Rivera-Tapia, María Elena Ramos-Cassellis
Background: Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the plants with better reproduction and adaptability to polluted environments, studies have shown that water lily is a collector of heavy metals in the water; taking advantage of its fast growth and ease of collection. Objective: To evaluate the elimination of lead (Pb) using the water lily as a bioaccumulator in a bioremediation process. Methodology: Analyzes were performed for the characterization of water lily and water. Water lily was collected, the requirement was sometimes a period of pre-adaptation, subsequently, it was placed in different tests with the water collected from an oxidation lagoon and lead as a contaminant. The duration of the trials was 15 days, in which the water lily was in direct contact with the contaminated water, during this period the behavior of the lily was monitored. Results: the tap water does not have lead, the lagoon water had a concentration of 0.025 mg/L lead, control water had a concentration of 3.14 mg/L lead, having a final removal of 13.05% in the water in bioaccumulation samples. The lily already contained a significant value of lead at the start of the 0.127 mg/kg test, with the addition of lead at the beginning of the experiment it gives us a value of 0.169 mg/kg, obtaining a value end of the experiment of 0.284 mg/kg which indicates a 91.84% increase in lead content in 15 day; which confirms the bioabsorption power of metals for this plant with the capacity to absorb more than 90 times its weight in water
Saline soils: source of metal-resistant and plant-associated halophilic microorganisms
Joseph Guevara-Luna, Iván Arroyo-Herrera, Yanely Bahena-Osorio, Brenda Román-Ponce, María Soledad Vásquez-Murrieta
The salinity in soils represents an extension of 1128 million hectares worldwide, considering the area affected naturally (primary) or man-induced (secondary). Therefore, a tendency to increase in the next years is estimated, representing a problem in agricultural activity due to physiological and biochemical changes in plant metabolism, affecting food production. The current research looking for restore or take advantage of these soils, as is the case of studying the microorganisms present and possible interactions with some plants. The objective of this work is to address aspects on the capacity of microorganisms present by activating mechanisms of tolerance, resistance and promotion of plant growth in the presence of potentially salts and toxic metals that reduce damage. Nowadays, the use of molecular techniques has been one of the main tools to identify microorganisms present and the relation the molecules involved in resistance to the presence of salts (transporters and synthesis of compatible solutes). Halophiles microorganisms can produce enzymes, synthesize extracellular polymeric substances, phytohormones and chelating compounds, help some plants to grow in these environments and also carry out a desalination of these soils. Having a great capacity to adapt and potential for be proposed in various bioprocesses
Evaluation of US2019070266 patent, treatment diabetic foot ulcers with Liraglutide
Diabetic foot ulcers are clinical complications that affect to a 15-25% of patients of type-2 diabetes mellitus and are responsible for more hospitalizations than any other complication of diabetes. Authors of US2019070266 patent propose a method for treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. US2019070266 describes a method that consists of the administration of Liraglutide, at a dose of 1.2-1.8 mg, in patients with type 2 diabetes and with at least one risk factor for vascular disease, such as microalbuminuria, proteinuria, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and ankle/brachial index <0.9. The results of the clinical trials support the therapy’s efficacy; however, the invention is not new considering art state, whereby, new studies will be necessary to determine other administration routes, e.g. topical, dose and time of administration of Liraglutide.
Volume 4, number 16
This year we concluded the Decade of Immunotherapy and the news could not be more encouraging. This year the FDA approved more than a dozen drugs, based on immunotherapy, for various types of cancer. In the same way, this decade ends with the shared awarding of the 2018 Nobel Prize in Cancer Immunotherapy for Tasuku Honjo (left) and James P. Allison (right). Dr. Tasuku Honjo, from the University of Kyoto (Japan) identified the molecule PD-1, a repressor of immune defenses against cancer, whose multiple inhibitors are used successfully in various types of cancer. For his part, Dr. James P. Allison, from the MD Anderson Cancer Center (EU) discovered how to slow down the function of the CTLA-4 protein, a receptor that works as an immune checkpoint that decreases immune responses. For this reason, Alliances and Trends BUAP® pays tribute to these scientists through a series of review and research articles. The first of these is related to therapeutic targets and targeted monoclonal antibodies targeting tumor cells in gastric cancer. The second deals with a trend analysis of publications and clinical studies related to the immune control molecule SLAMF7. Subsequently, the third article describes the research trends related to CTLA-4. Next, PD-1 research trends are discussed. Finally, in the last article the state of the art of drugs directed against TIM-3 is analyzed. It should be noted that, with the exception of the first article, the articles are part of the research work of students of the subject "Immune System" of the Bachelor of Biomedicine of the Faculty of Medicine of the Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla.
Therapeutic targets and monoclonal antibodies in gastric cancer
María Guadalupe González González, María Alicia Díaz y Orea, Mónica Heredia Montaño
Monoclonal antibodies are proteins responsible for the specific recognition of antigenic molecules, in recent decades they have been used in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases, including gastric cancer; however, a first-line therapeutic scheme has not yet been established with any of them. A review of the international literature in PubMed, SCOPUS and Medline of the articles related to the treatment of gastric cancer based on monoclonal antibodies is performed, in which the keywords were used, including articles in English, original and reviews, with no more than 10 years old. Conclusion: there are a wide variety of monoclonal antibodies that in diferent clinical studies have shown to have a favorable effect on the survival and rate of disease progression; however, some of them have not yet been approved as first-line treatments for this condition, due to the lack of more evidence about its safety and efficacy.
SLAMF7 receptor associated to cancer
María Fernanda González De La Torre, Alicia Esmeralda Islas Montiel
Receptors of the family of lymphocytic activation signaling molecules (SLAM) are membrane surface glycoproteins present in human immunological cells. SLAMF has physiological expression in T cells where it intervenes in cell differentiation. Under certain pathological conditions, such as some types of hematological cancer, it has been observed that in NK cells their overexpression simulates new arrangements of the cytoeskeleton of tumor cells and their adherence to macrophages to promote phagocytosis through the family of intracellular adapters associated with SLAM (SAP), in order to block the mechanisms of immunological evasion of tumor cells and prevent cell proliferation or metastasis. The development of biomedical research on SLAMF7 during this century was investigated in the PubMed database and clinical research in the registry of clinical trials Clinical/Trials.gov and of the drugs available in Orange Book.
CTLA-4: a receptor inhibitor of T lymphocytes
Marino Armando Anduaga Armenta
CTLA-4 is a CD28 homolog expressed on the surface of T lymphocytes. CTLA-4 is transiently expressed on the surface of early activated CD8 T cells; however, its expression is constitutive in T-regulators. Inhibition of CD8 T cells by CTLA-4 is twofold: the coupling of CD80 and CD86 costimulatory molecules to CTLA-4 in CD8 T cells, resulting in dephosphorylation of signaling proteins such as CD3, leading to lymphocyte inhibition T. In this work, a search was made in PubMed and NIH to find information for both the introduction and the graphs that will be presented below that reflect the number of articles related to CTLA-4 that have been published each year since the year 2000 to 2019, as well as the existing clinical trials and the different phases in which they are found.
Inhibition of the immune system in cancer by the PD-1 receptor
Joana Barbosa Gómez, Ernesto Cortes Gallardo
Introduction. In the area of cancer research, immune control point inhibitors are taking great importance as cancer treatments. PD-1 protein is involved in the process of immune evasion of malignant cells, improving tumor cell growth and promoting apoptosis in T cells. Interactions between PD-1 and its ligands play a key immonoregulatory role in activation and tolerance of T lymphocytes. So this document investigated the current existence of certain drugs that have certain mechanisms related to the activity of this protein and its biomedical importance as a treatment in this pathology. Development: A search was conducted with the oibjetive of elucidating the current state of research on PD-1 protein and its therapeutic involvement in cancer. Different studies and clinical trials were consulted through the NCBI and Clinical Trials and Orange Book plataforms. Conclusion: An exponential increase was observed in biomedical research publications of PD1-Cancer from 2009 to a maximun peak in 2018 but a decrease after this. Related clinical trials have been carried out during phase 1, and Nivolumab and Pembrolizumab among others are among teh commercially available drugs.
State of the art in drugs against TIM-3
Miriam Yesenia Cortés Sánchez, Edgar Ivan Galarce Sosa
Several properties of TIM-3 make it an ideal target for the next generation of immunotherapeutic drugs. Accumulated data support the concept of blocking TIM-3 can increase cell-mediated antitumor immune responses. The participation of TIM-3 in the progression or even the appearance of various types of cancer is constantly being revealed, which will give way to a deep understanding of the functions of the different types of cells that express TIM-3 in various models of immunotherapy is crusial for further development of the drug targeting TIM-3.
Volume 4, number 15
Editorial 4(15). Financing problems for small groups in Mexico
The generation of frontier knowledge is a very important task for the development of the country, the alignment of research to the problems facing Mexico is key to the success and use of that knowledge. The month of October is key for submitting projects in Mexico through the CONACYT National Strategic Program for Technology and Open Innovation (PENTA) and Frontiers of Science. Despite the changes made in this type of projects to strengthen research groups and improve the quality of results that impact on the improvement of the country, the form of evaluation for the allocation of resources has yet to mature. Unfortunately, in a disguise of “open competition”, the distribution of resources to do science in Mexico has not been democratic, on the contrary, it has been uneven and has normally favored the largest groups. The productivity gap between highly funded groups relative to small and low-funded groups is widening. The operating rules are easily complied with by highly funded groups in order to compete for resources, both from projects and from SNI research incentives (National System of Researchers).
Therefore, attention must be paid to this point or in the near future we will experience disastrous consequences of inequity and we could miss out on highly relevant ideas generated in small or nascent research groups. A proposal to streamline the distribution of resources is that it be carried out from automatic platforms that look at productivity via valid international indices such as the H index. Based on this parameter, the distribution of financial resources could be established and not groups that work hard would be left unprotected despite not being part of large research entities, a robot would not favor anyone and would measure all the researchers who compete in the same way. With this proposal, the global money bag for research could be distributed according to the score assigned by the robot, favoring those who work the most and not “the quality of the project”, which is often ambiguous depending on the evaluators; who rule and determine if a project is accepted or not. In addition, a robot could have the minimum amount programmed to be assigned to researchers who do their job considering their overall productivity history. As a propositional part of the solution to these problems, Alliances and Trends invites small research groups to submit publication proposals to disseminate their work despite being works that do not have high technology for solving questions of interest. These papers may not meet the demands of high-impact journals, but they answer questions that should be known to the scientific society, industry, the agricultural sector, the social sector, and interested people. In the present number of Alliances and Trends BUAP (Year 4, Number 15), we present three articles, the first is an original article that proposes a simple method to estimate parameters of potential between pairs: pressure-volume-temperature properties of benzene by molecular simulation Monte Carlo, the second article shows a review related to the benefits and harm that can be caused by strains of the genus Klebsiella and the third article reviews literature related to the secretome of strains of the genus Bacillus; a bacterium of high interest for the elimination of pathogenic fungi. We hope that this number of Alliances and Trends is a trigger for new projects from our readers and that they share this knowledge among their acquaintances.
Simple method to estimate potential parameters between pairs: pressure-volume-temperature properties of benzene using Monte Carlo molecular simulation
A. Elías-Domínguez, M. Torres-Suárez, F. Pérez-Villaseñor, A. Castro-Agüero, A. Ortiz-Arroyo, M.V. Hernández-Ruíz, E. Reyes-Pérez, M.R. Castillo-Estrada
Pressure of pure benzene is calculated using a molecular Monte Carlo simulation technique in the canonical ensemble with the molecular virial equation, data was calculated in a temperature span of 513.15 to 628.15 Kelvin, considering two cases. In the first instance, constant density of 0.9144 mol/L is used and in the second case density is spanned from 0.8829 mol/L to 2.1336 mol/L, with values calculated using the molecular model of united atoms with exponential-6 interactions. The estimations obtained by molecular simulation show average errors of 9.12% from the experimental data for constant density and 16.70% for variable density case. To improve data prediction, a simple method to estimate the parameters of the exponential-6 potential is proposed, the estimation method is based on the extrapolation of the error prediction value to zero, from a linear adjustment of the error. The parameters obtained were used to recalculate the pressure of pure benzene at the same temperature and density conditions, predicted data showed an average error of 0.68% for constant density and 2.29% for variable density.
The multifaceted personality of the genus Klebsiella: The good, the bad and the ugly
María Rosete-Enríquez, Verónica Quintero-Hernández, Yolanda Elizabeth Morales-García, Osvaldo Rodríguez-Andrade, América Paulina Rivera-Urbalejo
The multifaceted personality of genus Klebsiella is evident because the species Klebsiella variicola, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca belonging to this genus, have been traditionally classified as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, as pathogens or as pathobionts. In fact, there are numerous genetic, morphological and physiological characteristics that are used to identify and classify these species based on their activities beneficial or damaging from the human point view. However, depending on genetic background and environmental conditions K. variicola, K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca can remodel their activities and behave differently than classically described. Therefore, the objective of this work is to review the classification attributes of these three species of genus Klebsiella, and same time provide examples that demonstrate that these same species can remodel their known classical activities to adapt to different conditions. The presentation of these evidences invites reflection on general aspects about classification and plasticity of exchange of information between the genome and environment to adjust the metabolism of bacteria.
Importance of the Bacillus spp. secretome in the biological control of phytopathogenic fungi
Bruce Manuel Morales-Barrón, Raquel González-Fernández, Francisco J. Vázquez-González, Antonio De La Mora-Covarrubias, Miroslava Quiñonez-Martínez, Jesús Muñoz-Rojas, José Valero-Galván
The genera of Bacillus have a big protein secretion involucre to the antagonism process of phytopathogens fungi, this process is studied by the finality to find the way of fight the damage causes because are registrant economics and environmental losses. The studies of species the bacillus genera could be secrete a wide range of proteins and this can be variety according to the medium in which they are found, which indicates that depending on the organism they face, there may be variations in the secreted proteins, for this reason the importance of studying the secreted proteins benefits in the production of specific inoculants for the phytopathogenic fungi. Therefore, the present review presents the action of protein secretion that the genus Bacillus has had against phytopathogenic fungi.