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Volume 6, number 23

Cover, content and editorial board

1) Portada y contenido Vol 6 No 23.pdf

Editorial 6 (23) AyTBUAP. An overview of our days and work of Alliances and Trends BUAP from July to September 2021

Jesús Muñoz-Rojas* iD

Download citation (RIS): Muñoz-Rojas, 2021 AyTBUAP 6(23):i-viii

Publication date: September 15th 2021

Abstract

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has not been controlled yet. On the contrary, new variants have appeared. Despite vaccination efforts, people remain susceptible, in part because of the newer variants but also because not everyone in the population develops immunity. As if that was not enough, humanity has witnessed very serious events related to climate change during these pandemic times. The journal Alliances and Trends BUAP (AyTBUAP) is indexed in various repositories and it is committed to the serious evaluation of original manuscripts, reviews, opinions, patent analysis, bibliometric analysis, among other types of manuscripts, for their possible publication in the journal; giving priority to manuscripts focused on solving current problems. This editorial shows the manuscripts that were accepted and published in the period July to September 2021. In addition, we have reactivated the AyTBUAP talks, this time through an online form in order to contribute to the safeguarding of the participants to avoid more infections by SARS-CoV-2.

2) Muñoz-Rojas, editorial 6(23).pdf

In vitro study on phosphorus solubilizing fungi under different carbon and nitrogen sources

Rosa María Arias Mota* iD, Norberto Daniel Hernández Merel, Yamel del Carmen Perea Rojas, Yadeneyro de la Cruz Elizondo iD

Download citation (RIS): Arias-Mota et al., 2021 AyTBUAP 6(23):1-19

Publication date: July 18th 2021

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Abstract

ABSTRACT

Background: Phosphorus solubilizing fungi are very important in the phosphorus cycle because they can transform it from insoluble to soluble. These organisms depend on the nutrients of the environment for their development and are active in biogeochemical processes. Objective: Evaluate in vitro the capacity of three strains of fungi to solubilize phosphate with different carbon and nitrogen sources and to relate the solubility with the pH of the culture medium and fungal biomass. Methods: The strains used were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium brevicompactum, and P. waksmanii, they were inoculated with carbon sources (arabinose, fructose, and glucose), and nitrogen sources (asparagine, ammonium sulfate, and urea); as a control, we used the medium without carbon/nitrogen. During a month, every third day, the soluble phosphorus, the pH in the culture medium, and the fungal biomass was measured. Results and discussion: Among the data with carbon sources, when the strain of A. niger grew with glucose, it presented the highest solubilization, while for P. waksmanii and P. brevicompactum, it was detected the highest solubilization when grown with fructose. Regarding the nitrogen sources, for A. niger, the growth with ammonium sulfate favored higher solubilization, while in P. brevicompactum and P. waksmanii, it was with the control treatment (limited nitrogen). By regression we detected that in A. niger and P. brevicompactum with different carbon sources, that the capacity to solubilize tricalcium phosphate significantly increased with the acidification of the culture medium and with the fungal biomass. However, for the three strains evaluated in different nitrogen sources, the solubilizing phosphate activity was not significantly related to the pH of the culture medium or to the fungal biomass.

3) Arias Mota et al., 2021.pdf

Physicochemical and microbiological characterization for the use of sludge from two wastewater treatment plants in Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico

Sofía Ramírez-Calderon* iD, Luz Patricia Ávila-Caballero iD, Justiniano González-González iD, José Luis Rosas-Acevedo iD, Maximino Reyes-Umaña iD, Heriberto Hernández Cocoletzi iD

Download citation (RIS): Ramírez-Calderon et al., 2021 AyTBUAP 6(23):20-36

Publication date: August 10th 2021

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Abstract

ABSTRACT

Solid waste (SW) generates environmental, social, and economic problems whether its final disposal and use is not adequate. An example of this is the sludge obtained from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), which could significantly contribute to the pollution of the atmosphere, national waters, and soils, affecting the ecosystems of the area where they are deposited. The objective of this work was to carry out the physicochemical and microbiological characterization of the sludge from two wastewater treatment plants and verify if, in according to the Mexican standards NOM-004-SEMARNAT-2002 and NMX-AA-180-SCFI-2018, the mud is usable and useful for the manufacturing of compost. For this purpose, physicochemical and microbiological analyzes were carried out on the sludge and the compost resulting from the mixture of sludge, coconut fiber (CF), and garden pruning residues (GPR). The results showed the concentrations of nutrients, heavy metals, fecal coliforms (FC), and Salmonella spp. do not exceed the permissible limits outlined in NOM-004-SEMARNAT-2002. However, the resulting compost, as a final product, does not satisfy the NMX-AA-180-SCFI-2018. Taking this into account, it could be suggested that the sludge is only usable for soil improvement, forestry, and agricultural uses. In addition, it is inferred that these sludges are not suitable for urban uses with or without direct public contact during their uses.

4) Ramírez-Calderón et al., 2021.pdf

Preliminary phytochemical study of the goat diet and determination of flavonoids in goat milk

Sandra Cristel Martínez-Villegas iD, Oscar Carmona-Hernández iD, Micloth López del Castillo-Lozano iD, Carolina Barrientos-Salcedo iD, Ma. Del Socorro Fernández iD, Yadeneyro De la Cruz-Elizondo iD, José Armando Lozada-García iD

Download citation (RIS): Martínez-Villegas et al., 2021 AyTBUAP 6(23):37-51

Publication date: September 6th 2021

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Abstract

ABSTRACT

Goat milk and its products are very important worldwide due to its nutritional components that it provides to human beings. However, there are many important factors that influence the quality and composition of milk, one of them is the diet of goats. It has been reported that fodder, in addition to providing macronutrients, bioactive compounds such as flavonoids are antioxidants. A botanical study identifies the main species of plants consumed by goats at the Micro-region of Coyopolan, Ixhuacán de los Reyes, Veracruz. Identifying the wild blackberry (Rubus adenotrichus). The plants identified were characterized by a preliminary phytochemical test. The incorporation of flavonoids in goat milk was carried out with the modification of the diet in a goat herd of the Alpinas breed; The quality of the foliage content of blackberry (Rubus adenotrichus). The changes in the bromatological parameters of the milk and the flavonoid content were determined during 30 days of the experiment. The ethanolic extracts of forage plants indicated flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenes / sterols, coumarins and saponins. The extracts of black-berry were the ones with the highest flavonoid content. The goats fed with blackberry forage include the incorporation of flavonoids in the milk produced, without showing differences in the bromatological parameters with respect to the control group. The goat diet plays an important role in the incorporation of bioactive substances such as flavonoids because it is found in the milk of the goat, whose activity is related to the dietary.

5) Martínez-Villegas et al., 2021.pdf

Stomach cancer: risk factors, diagnosis and treatment

Dinorah N. Martínez-Carrillo iD, Verenice Arzeta Camero iD, Hilda Jiménez-Wences iD, Adolfo Román-Román iD, Gloria Fernández-Tilapa* iD

Download citation (RIS): Martínez-Carrillo et al., AyTBUAP 6(23):52-71

Publication date: September 14th 2021

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Abstract

ABSTRACT

Stomach cancer is twice as common in men and, in 2020, it ranked third in incidence among Mexican men. There is a lack of early detection and education programs on the measures that can prevent the evolution from gastric diseases to cancer, in Mexico. In recent years progress has been made in understanding the natural history of intestinal-type stomach cancer and the factors that cause carcinogenesis; however, the prevalence of this tumor continues to increase. Disseminate this and the information on factors that protect against gastric carcinogenesis is our purpose.

Some host´s dietary habits, lifestyles, genetic factors, and environmental factors work synergistically to induce stomach cancer. Infectious agents such as Helicobacter pylori, Epstein Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Mycoplasma, sp., Induce gastric inflammation, which can lead to malignancy. Treatment of gastric infections can reverse premalignant lesions and slow carcinogenesis. Gastric cancer is treatable in the early stages, in advanced stages, survival is reduced to months. The absence of specific symptoms, the lack of non-invasive diagnostic tools, and the inexistence of early detection programs favor the late diagnosis of gastric cancer and high mortality. Endoscopy is the method of choice for the diagnosis of precancerous lesions and cancer. Surgery is the indicated therapy for stomach cancer, and postoperative radio or chemotherapy are complementary alternatives. Promptly treating gastritis or other digestive problems is a protective measure against gastric cancer.

6) Martínez-Carrillo et al., 2021.pdf

Rhizobacteria for the improvement of the corn crop (Zea mays). A promising technology for the production of Creole corn

Edgar Tonatiuh Sánchez-Navarrete* iD, Ma Dolores Castañeda-Antonio iD, Antonino Baez iD, Yolanda Elizabeth Morales-García** iD

Download citation (RIS): Sánchez-Navarrete et al., AyTBUAP 6(23):72-92

Publication date: September 14th 2021

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Abstract

ABSTRACT

Maize (Zea mays) is a grass plant, part of Mexican culture, it is present in the economic and social country activities, the improvement of the crops of this plant could be possible using inoculants formulated based on Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGRP), a technology that does not pollute the soil, which is economical, and can reduce the use of chemical fertilizers; these last ones have many disadvantages in their use. Rhizobacteria are important for agriculture, they provide benefits to the plant through different mechanisms, for example, solubilizing and mobilizing minerals, making them more bioavailable for use (direct mechanisms), or also inhibiting the growth of pathogenic microorganisms (indirect mechanisms), positively influencing plant growth. As a result of this interaction, better crops are obtained, more resistant and with better nutritional quality grains.

This paper analysed information on the experiences of various authors who have carried out experimental research to obtain better maize yields thanks to the application of PGPR, opening the possibility of its management as a complement and/or partial replacement of chemical fertilizers. This technology has proved efficient for the stimulation of growth of some creole maize and could mean the technology that is required for the rescue and cultivation of the different varieties of creole maize in Mexico.

7) Sánchez-Navarrete et al., 2021.pdf

Volume 6, number 22

1) Portada y contenido Vol 6 No 22.pdf

Cover, content and editorial board

Editorial 6 (22) AyTBUAP. Microbial extracellular polymeric substances with flocculating properties: an alternative to the use of acrylamide copolymers

Alma Rosa Netzahuatl-Muñoz* ID

Download citation (RIS): Netzahuatl-Muñoz, 2021 AyTBUAP 6(22):i-vi

Publication date: June 17th 2021

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Abstract

Abstract

The coagulation-flocculation operation for the removal of suspended particles is widely used in wastewater treatment. Among the flocculants most used today are acrylamide copolymers, however, the extensive use of these recalcitrant molecules could cause undesirable effects on ecosystems. Recent studies have reported extracellular polymeric substances of microbial origin with flocculating properties like synthetic polymers. These findings show the great potential of microbial polymers in the environmental area and the importance of additional studies that allow their large-scale production.

2) 622 Netzahuatl-Muñoz, 2021 Editorial.pdf

Distribution of Triatoma (Meccus) phyllosoma and Triatoma (Meccus) longipennis as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi in the state of Aguascalientes, Mexico and surroundings

Susana Morales-Moran, Eduardo Sánchez-García ID, Rosa Isela Chávez-Gómez, Norma Adela Carrasco-Esparza, Alberto Aguayo-Acosta ID, David Alejandro Hernández-Marín* ID

Download citation (RIS): Morales-Morán et al., 2021 AyTBUAP 6(22): 1-15

Publication date: April 08th 2021

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Abstract

ABSTRACT

Chagas disease is transmitted by hematophagous triatomine insects of the Reduviidae family. These vectors tend to hide in dark and humid places in homes in the endemic areas, mainly rural in Latin America. The Mexican territory is considered a critical endemic area, in recent years; more than 34 species of triatomines have been described as carriers of the disease, mainly the genera Rhodnius, Paratriatoma, Eratyrus, Dipetalogaster, Belminus, Panstrongylus, Meccus, and Triatoma. In Aguascalientes and Zacatecas's states, the observationand capture of the Triatoma phyllosoma and Triatoma longipennis species have been reported over three decades. Recent studies show that both species belong to the genera Meccus. This work summarizes the capture, identification, and analysis of Triatoma (Meccus) phyllosoma and Triatoma (Meccus) longipennis species as vectors of Chagas disease in the towns of Palo Alto, El Terrero de la Labor, Temazcal, Piedras Chinas, La Labor, Ojocaliente, Malpaso, Las Cabras and the center of the municipality of Calvillo in the state of Aguascalientes, Apulco and Jalpa in the state of Zacatecas, during March to August of the year 2019. Of a total of 252 collected bed bugs, 44% presented positivity as a carrier of Trypanosoma cruzi. Simultaneously, the morphological identification showed that 66.66% corresponds to the M. longipennis species, and the remaining 33.34% is for the M. phyllosoma species.

3) 6221 Morales-Morán et al., 2021.pdf
3a) 6221 Morales-Morán et al., 2021 Suppementary figures.pdf

In silico search for Quorum Sensing inhibitors and preclinical studies in Chromobacterium violaceum

Esmeralda Escobar-Muciño* ID

Download citation (RIS): Escobar-Muciño, 2021 AyTBUAP 6(22):16-53

Publication date: May 05th 2021

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Abstract

ABSTRACT

The search for inhibitors of Quorum sensing (QS) in Gram-negative bacteria is important due to its pathogenicity, therefore new alternatives are being sought to inhibit its virulence. The objective of the present study was to determine the Gibbs free energy (-ΔG) through a molecular coupling of 11 aromatic compounds with the CviR regulator of QS in Chromobacterium violaceum and to obtain the pharmacokinetic and preclinical parameters of the best QS inhibitors. Evaluating the -ΔG by 2 programs (Chimera 1.14 and mcule) comparing the averages by Tukey method (p≤0.05) and representing the ligand-protein binding employing loops and ribbons models. Furthermore, the interactions between the amino acids of the QS regulator (hydrogen bridge and non-covalent bonds) and the functional groups of aromatic compounds were analyzed. Finally, a preclinical in silico study was carried out reporting the Lethal Dose in mice (LD50) by 3 QSAR models and 5 pharmacokinetic parameters. The results showed that when analyzing the -ΔG by both programs, 5 strong QS inhibitors were obtained: ferulic acid (-6.37 ± 0.21), hydroxycinnamic acid (-6.53 ± 0.35), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (6.6 ± 0.61), eugenol (-6.2 ± 0.38), and isoeugenol (-6.23 ± 0.59). Obtaining that each compound inhibits the activity of CviR by a blocking mechanism of the autoinducer-1 binding domain of CviR. Also, significant LD50 values were obtained without reporting mouse toxicity and acceptable pharmacokinetic values of the 5 selected inhibitors. Concluding that the inhibitors could be the target of research as an alternative therapy against the pathogenesis of C. violaceum.

4) 6222 Escobar-Muciño, 2021.pdf

Characterization of rhizospheric strains belonging to the genus Paraburkholderia sp. isolated from the northern highlands of the State of Puebla

Itzia Citlali Guevara-González ID, Ricardo Carreño-López ID, Luis Ramiro Caso-Vargas ID, Vianey Marín-Cevada* ID

Download citation (RIS): Guevara-González et al., 2021 AyTBUAP 6(22): 54-75

Publication date: May 09th 2021

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Abstract

ABSTRACT

The genus Paraburkholderia comprises more than 100 species, isolated from various environments such as plants, agricultural soils, volcanic soils, and even water bodies. Few studies in our country report the isolation of members belonging to this genus. In this work, we focus on the taxonomic position of seven rhizospheric strains belonging to the Burkholderia sensu lato group, all of them were isolated from timber trees such as pine and wild plants such as fern and bromeliads, in the municipality of Chignahuapan situated in the state of Puebla using an approach polyphasic taxonomic. Based on the sequences analysis of the 16S rRNA, atpD, and recA genes confirmed that all the strains belong to the genus Paraburkholderia, even GB45, GB51, GB53, GB62, GB152, and GB203 form a cluster with Paraburkholderia sediminicola and Paraburkholderia aspalathi, except for the GB190 strain, which might represent a new species of this genus because it is separated from this group, as shown by phylogenetic trees. Regarding the phenotypic characterization, the seven strains showed an optimal growth at at 35 °C and pH 6.0 in the absence of NaCl. The ability to tolerate different heavy metal concentrations (Co, Pb, Mo, Ni, Zn, and V) and antibiotics concentrations (ampicilin, gentamicin, tetracyclin, kanamycin, and chloramphenicol) was diverse. Only the GB51 strain grew in the presence of zinc (≤200 ppm) and vanadium (≤50 ppm). The GB190 strain was not able to grow at 39 °C and pH 4.0 but it was the only strain resistant to gentamicin (1 µg/mL) and kanamycin (2.5 µg/mL), characteristics that also differentiated it from the rest of the isolates.

5) 6223 Guevara-González et al., 2021.pdf
5a) 6223 Guevara-González et al., 2021 Mat Suplemtario.pdf

Analysis of the satisfaction surveys carried out in a hospital pharmacy consultation. Results comparison

Joaquín Urda Romacho* ID, Jesús María Fernández Martín, Diana González Vaquero, María del Carmen Torres Rodríguez, José Cantó Mangana1, María Ángeles Castro Vida

Download citation (RIS): Urda-Romacho et al., 2021 AyTBUAP 6(22): 76-88

Publication date: May 19th 2021

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Abstract

ABSTRACT

Background: Patient´s satisfaction is a reflection of the type and quality of care provided by health professionals. Patient satisfaction survey is considered a quality standard for evaluating the results of the health care process.

Objective: The aims of this study were to determine the level of patient satisfaction with the service provided in our Outpatient Pharmacy Unit, spot possible improving actions and to analyze the results comparing them with those obtained in previous study.

Method: Cross-sectional study carried out from February to December 2015 in the Pharmacy Outpatient Unit of a 256-bed regional hospital. To evaluate patient satisfaction, we used a validated survey with 19 questions.

Results: 386 surveys were collected. 97.67 % patients were satisfied or very satisfied overall with the Outpatient Pharmacy Unit. The physical space and the organization obtained the lowest valuation.

Conclusion: Overall satisfaction was very high. It is important to know patient perception to identify opportunities for improvement and increase the quality of the service provided.

6) Urda Romacho et al., 2021.pdf
6a) ANEXO I.pdf

Volume 6, number 21

Cover, content and editorial board

1) Portada y contenido Vol 6 No 21.pdf

Editorial 6 (21) AyTBUAP. The next pandemic: Multi-resistant to antibiotics bacteria

Verónica Quintero-Hernández* ID

Download citation (RIS): Quintero-Hernández, 2021 AyTBUAP 6(21): i-vii

Publication date: March 28th 2021

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Abstract

ABSTRACT


Currently humanity is experiencing an unexpected pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes the disease called COVID-19. Fortunately, vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have been developed in record time due to the enormous effort of large scientific laboratories and pharmaceutical companies around the world. However, the end of this pandemic is still a long way off and this event leaves us a lesson that we must live with a culture of prevention.

When this pandemic is overcome, humanity cannot return to live in the comfort of the past and ignore another of the serious problems that we currently have and that will worsen in the following years: the increase of multi-resistant bacteria to antibiotics currently available.

The World Health Organization (WHO) published in 2017 a list of bacteria that urgently require new antibiotics because they are resistant to several of the conventional antibiotics currently available.

The short ISCT-type peptides derived from scorpion venoms have great potential as new antibiotics since they present a broad-spectrum activity, their mechanism of action has very little probability of being blocked by bacteria since this kind of antimicrobials do not act on a specific receptor of the membrane of bacteria. Bacterial membrane structure is an alpha helix and its small size, less than 20 amino acids, facilitates its chemical synthesis without the need for an extra modification.

2) 06 21 Quintero-Hernández, 2021.pdf

Microorganisms of interest for the agriculture of the future: biocontrol agents and nitrogen fixers

Patricia Bernal* ID

Download citation (RIS): Bernal, 2021 AyTBUAP 6(21):1-11

Publication date: March 01th 2021

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Abstract

ABSTRACT


Extensive agriculture necessary to meet the nutritional needs of billions of inhabitants of the planet has required various methods to ensure production as well as to avoid millionaire damages. Among these methods, the use of chemical compounds such as pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers has allowed the supply of fruits, vegetables, legumes and cereals for both farm animals and human beings during the last decades. On one hand, chemical pesticides have been fundamental to avoid the great losses derived from crop pests. On the other hand, nitrogen fertilizers have allowed to greatly increase agriculture production by providing crops with their main limitation for growth, assimilable nitrogen. Although it is clear that these approaches have been key to maintaining extensive agriculture, both have serious secondary effects on the environment including contamination of the soil and the impairment of natural microbiome. For this reason, in recent years, different initiatives have been prioritized to promote sustainable agriculture to preserve our planet. In this context, the biological control of diseases caused by plant pathogens (phytopathogens) and the biological nitrogen fixation are considered excellent alternatives to chemical pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers to protect our crops and increase their production, respectively.

In this article, both, the biological control carried out by Pseudomonas putida using the type VI secretion system and the biological nitrogen fixation performed by rhizobia employing the type III secretion system, are described from the point of view of the agricultural biotechnology.

3) 06 21 01 Bernal, 2021.pdf

Molecular identification of Mycobacterium species isolated from patients with a clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis

Carlos García-Cortés, Perla M. Martinez-Cruz, Edith A. Bernabé Pérez, Jesús Muñoz-Rojas ID, Lucía Martínez-Martínez* ID

Download citation (RIS): García-Cortés y cols., 2021 AyTBUAP 6(21):12-27

Publication date: March 03th 2021

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Abstract

ABSTRACT


Background: Tuberculosis (TB) incidence in Mexico is increasing due to an unspecific or delayed diagnosis, among several other causes. Molecular markers such as rpoB and 16S rRNA genes have been used to identify the Mycobacterium genus. Insertion sequence 6110 (IS6110) has been used as a genetic marker in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genotyping.

Objective: To perform a retrospective study to evaluate rpoB and 16S rRNA genes and IS6110 usefulness to identify the Mycobacterium genus and MTBC isolates.

Methods: A total of 146 clinical samples were analyzed. Amplification products from rpoB, 16S rRNA and IS6110 were obtained by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). M. bovis was identified using a Multiplex PCR assay.

Results: Mycobacteria were identified in 65 clinical samples as shown by rpoB and 16S rRNA genes amplification. In 22 isolates (22/65) amplification products were obtained only for rpoB and/or 16S rRNA genes. MTBC presence was confirmed in 43/65 isolates as IS6110 amplification product was obtained. Sequencing products of rpoB, 16S rRNA and IS6110 showed 98%-100% homology with MTBC species reported in the GenBank database.

Discussion: Inclusion of molecular techniques in infectious diseases diagnosis allows to get precise results in short time. In mycobacterial infections, molecular makers such as rpoB, 16S rRNA and IS6110, largely contribute to make a specific diagnosis and differentiate between TB and mycobacteriosis, leading to the best treatment administration to the patient.

4) 06 21 02 García-Cortés et al 2021.pdf

Molecular identification methods for Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus

Cristian Molinares-Pacheco, Julieta Mariana Muñoz-Morales ID, Adriana Carbajal-Armenta, Ana Laura Hernández-Tenorio, Alejandro Cueto-Becerra, Jesús Muñoz-Rojas* ID

Download citation (RIS): Molinares-Pacheco et al., 2021 AyTBUAP 6(21): 28-44

Publication date: March 20th 2021

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Abstract

ABSTRACT


The methods for identifying microorganisms are based on their morphological, physiological, proteomic, and genomic characteristics. Under traditional identification, culture-dependent techniques are used, but they may present drawbacks depending on the type of microorganism to be identified, its growth capacity, its resemblance to some other microbe and the total time for its identification. The use of PGPB in agriculture has had a positive impact by reducing production costs, reducing the negative impact on the environment and human health. G. diazotrophicus is a diazotrophic-endophytic bacterium with PGPB characteristics that have a longer growth time compared to other bacteria, and it presents phenotypic and genetic characteristics like nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the same genus, therefore, its identification using only traditional methods can be somewhat laborious and unspecific. In this review, some molecular methods for identification of G. diazotrophicus were analysed.

5) 06 21 03 Molinares et al., 2021.pdf

Aqueous plant extracts as germination inhibitors of Hemileia vastatrix urediniospores; coffee orange rust

José Antonio García-Pérez* ID, Enrique Alarcón-Gutiérrez ID, Vianey del Rocio Torres Pelayo ID

Download citation (RIS): García-Pérez et al., 2021 AyTBUAP 6(21): 45-60

Publication date: March 28th 2021

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Abstract

ABSTRACT


The aim of this study was to test the inhibitory effect of plant aqueous extracts on the urediniospores germination of the coffee rust (Hemileia vastatrix). Aqueous extracts were prepared from leaves of Ardisia compressa and Eriobotrya japonica which are commons in coffee plantations in central Veracruz, Mexico, and from leaves of Ocimun basilicum, which is common in local home gardens. Three experimental trials were carried out, one with the extract of each plant species under a completely randomized design with four treatments; the negative control (extract 0%), the positive control (commercial fungicide), and extracts at 75% and 100%. The response variable was the proportion of germinated urediniospores and the explanatory variable was the extract concentration. A Generalized Linear Model (GLM) with binomial errors was fitted for data of each experiment using the R software. The results indicated that extracts of the three plants species, totally inhibited the germination of urediniospores at a similar level to that of the commercial fungicide. In spite of low germination rate of urediniospores in negative controls, it was statistically higher (P < 0.01) than that of the other treatments. Therefore, it is concluded that extracts of three plant species have a great potential to be used in the ecological control of coffee rust. However, experiments need to be scaled up at the greenhouse and field level and testing with surfactants, adjuvants, and stabilizers.

6) 06 21 04 García-Pérez et al., 2021.pdf

Volume 5, number 20

1) Portada y contenido Vol 5 No 20 new ok.pdf

Cover, content and editorial board

Editorial 5(20) AyTBUAP. Two thousand and twenty, a year marked by COVID-19, challenges and short-term prospects

Yolanda Elizabeth Morales-García* ID

Download citation (RIS): Morales-García, 2020 AyTBUAP 5(20):i-viii

Publication date: december 29th 2020

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Abstract

Abstract

2020 was a year full of challenges to be overcome. Unfortunately, many of our loved ones did not survive the pandemic. Here we present a summary of the global behavior of COVID-19, the number of individuals diagnosed as positive for SARS-CoV-2 and the number of worldwide deaths. We show an overview of the research carried out on COVID-19, as well as the publications that have been presented in BUAP Alliances and Trends. In addition, we present the encouraging news of treatment options and vaccines that have been developed and that are increasingly administered to the population; which could allow us to return to a more active and carefree life.

2) Editorial ok.pdf

Past and present links of BUAP Alliances and Trends and perspectives of the journal

Julieta Mariana Muñoz-Morales ID, Brenda Luna-Sosa ID, Jesús Muñoz-Rojas* ID

Download citation (RIS): Muñoz-Morales et al., 2020 AyTBUAP 5(20):1-10

Publication date: December 11th 2020

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Abstract

ABSTRACT

The Alliances and Trends BUAP (AyTBUAP) journal is a Project that started in 2015 with the purpose of publishing original papers, short papers, reviews, and trending opinions, specially related to patents and new applied knowledge, without excluding basic frontier science. The project has been consolidating over time and in 2020 a new web portal with its own domain was created. In this new portal the readers can either visualize the papers in HTML version or download the papers in PDF version. The journal has already been indexed in 4 different sites (International Scientific Indexing, CiteFactor, Academic Resource Index and Latindex) and its visibility has increased. The arbitration work is already recognized by Publons and it is projected that AyTBUAP will be indexed in other plataforms, and to increase its visibility and impact factor.

3) Muñoz-Morales et al 2020.pdf

Detection methods for SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19

Esmeralda Escobar-Muciño* ID, Estrella Escobar-Muciño ID, Adriana Gamboa-Pérez ID

Download citation (RIS): Escobar-Muciño et al., 2020 AyTBUAP 5(20):11-43

Publication date: December12th 2020

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Abstract

ABSTRACT


The emerging outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread around the world. Demonstrating its damaging effect on many systems and human organs; this is of great concern to society likewise it affects their daily life and the world economy. Caused an unprecedented need for rapid diagnostics for rapid and sensitive detection of the virus, especially when the vaccines are not available. This study aimed to compare published studies to obtain information on the detection methods of SARS-CoV-2 such as: the RT-qPCR, the RT-LAMP, the serological tests, and the different biosensors such as: (i) the optical colorimetric biosensors (fluorescent), (ii) the electrochemical biosensors (potentiometric and amperometric), (iii) the biosensors based on aptamers, and (iv) the molecular impress polymer (MIP). Also was summarized the advantages and disadvantages of new platforms that find in the development and growth stage as new detection technologies for diagnosing the SARS-CoV-2.

4) Escobar-Muciño et al., 2020.pdf

Money as a source of SARS-CoV-2 contagion in Mexico

Julieta Mariana Muñoz-Morales ID, Brenda Luna-Sosa ID, Yolanda Elizabeth Morales-García* ID, Jesús Muñoz-Rojas** ID

Download citation (RIS): Muñoz-Morales et al., 2020 AyTBUAP 5(20):44-49

Publication date: December 12th 2020

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Abstract

ABSTRACT


Money in its various forms (bills, coins, cards) could be a potential source of contagion for contracting COVID-19. However, there are still no works that determine the level of viral particles in this type of transaction materials. Although these studies have not yet been carried out, the population should assume that money contains viral particles that could potentially infect any individual. It is suggested to use anti-contact payment systems, for example, QR payment systems, in order to avoid contagion due to the use of transaction materials.

5) Muñoz-Morales et al 2020 covid opinion.pdf

Description of the CRISPR-Cas system and its application as a point of care methodology in the detection of SARS-CoV-2

Esmeralda Escobar-Muciño* ID, Estrella Escobar-Muciño ID, Adriana Gamboa-Pérez ID

Download citation (RIS): Escobar-Muciño et al., 2020 AyTBUAP 5(20):50-98

Publication date: December 19th 2020

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Abstract

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome virus coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread since December 2019 causing the disease called “COVID-19” in the world, making the general population vulnerable. Proving its effect in all ages, damaging many human organs and systems, causing preoccupation among the individuals, affecting daily life and the world economy. Specially because vaccines are not available so far, generating an unprecedented need for diagnostic methods for rapid and sensitive detection that differentiates strains of the coronavirus. Reason why the objective of this study was to describe the CRISPR-Cas system, as well as the emerging methodologies for the identification of SARS-CoV-2 and compare the advantages and disadvantages of the various published studies. In order to obtain information on the new alternative technologies based on the CRISPR-Cas that in some cases have been approved by the FDA as a diagnostic methodology, in the development and testing stages in illness people with COVID-19. And are comparable with conventional virus detection methods, are a type of point-of-care biosensor because they offer an effective diagnosis of the disease on a large scale in people carrying SARS-CoV-2.

6) Escobar-Muciño et al Crispercas.pdf

Review about the occurrence of triclosan in groundwater and trends for its removal

Alma Rosa Netzahuatl-Muñoz1* ID, Patricia Rodríguez-Cuamatzi1** ID

Download citation (RIS): Netzahuatl-Muñoz & Rodríguez-Cuamatzi, 2020 AyTBUAP 5(20):99-135

Publication date: 19 diciembre 2020

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Abstract

ABSTRACT


According to the importance of a source of drinking water supply, groundwater must guarantee safety in terms of its chemical composition. However, in recent years a large amount of unregulated toxic organic micro-pollutants has been detected in groundwater. Triclosan (TCS) is a disinfectant substance and indicator molecule for anthropogenic origin polluting processes due to its toxic properties and high mobility in the environment. Studies of monitoring analysis for groundwater contamination with triclosan shows that its presence in drinking water sources is mainly found in urban areas and, to a lesser extent, in rural areas. The presence of TCS is fundamentally due to three problems: 1) infiltration of untreated domestic wastewater, 2) infiltration of treated domestic wastewater in where, treatment process does not include advanced operations to eliminate organic micro-pollutants, and 3) infiltration of leachate from sanitary landfills. The most promising technologies for triclosan removal from aqueous systems with low organic matter content are advanced oxidation and oxidation, adsorption and biosorption, microbial metabolic removal, enzymatic transformation, and phytofiltration. Many of the studies for triclosan removal have been carried out at the laboratory level emphasizing both the efficiency of the process and the pollutant removal mechanism, these studies are of great importance for the design of wastewater and natural water treatment systems.

7) Netzahuatl-Muñoz 2020.pdf

Second generation inoculant to increase the growth and health of garden plants

Yolanda Elizabeth Morales-García ID, Dalia Juárez-Hernández, Ana Laura Hernández-Tenorio, Julieta Mariana Muñoz-Morales ID, Antonino Baez* ID, Jesús Muñoz-Rojas** ID

Download citation (RIS): Morales-García et al., 2020 AyTBUAP 5(20):136-154

Publication date: December 28th 2020

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Abstract

ABSTRACT


Plant growth-promoting bacteria have been extensively studied and the second generation of multispecies inoculants have recently been designed. INOCREP is a multispecies formulation composed of six beneficial bacterial species. INOCREP stimulates plant growth much better than monoinoculants; its promoting traits have been studied in several plants of agricultural interest. A formulation derived from INOCREP that is diluted ten times respect to the original formulation has been proposed as a garden formulation. INOCREP-garden has been explored in various plants under pot conditions, enhancing plant development. There are three ways to inoculate the bacterial formulation in gardens: on the seeds, seedlings, and developed plants. This work provides an overview of the state of the art of the INOCREP formulation and its garden derivative.

8) Morales-García et al., 2020.pdf
8) Figura suplementaria 1.pdf
8) Figura suplementaria 2.pdf
8) Figura suplementaria 3.pdf

Diversity of non-photosynthetic bacteria and their metabolic processes associated with lichens

Martínez-Vargas Blanca Isabel, Pérez-y-Terrón Rocío* ID

Download citation (RIS): Martínez-Vargas & Pérez-y-Terrón, 2020 AyTBUAP 5(20):155-171

Publication date: December 28th 2020

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Abstract

ABSTRACT


Introduction: Lichens are mutualistic symbiotic associations between a fungus and one or more green algae or cyanobacteria. Interactions between lichens and non-photosynthetic bacteria have currently been reported, however, it is not known in detail how they occur, and the diversity and potential of this relationship have not yet been fully explored. With the use of new molecular tools and new culture methods, the functions of non-photosynthetic bacteria related to lichens were detailed and, therefore, it was possible to analyze their symbiotic association. Therefore, this research aims to analyze the diversity of non-photosynthetic bacteria and their metabolic processes that allow the survival of lichens. Methodology: From the search and analysis of recent works (2015-2020), the phyla of non-photosynthetic bacteria present in lichens were obtained and the metabolic processes of these bacteria were analyzed in relation to the survival of the lichens in which they were found. Results: The bacterial phyla frequently found in lichens are Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes Verrucomicrobia, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria y Thermus, Discussion: These groups of bacteria carry out processes such as nitrogen fixation, production of hormones, pigments and vitamins that contribute to the nutrition, protection and regulation of the growth of the lichen. Conclusion: Lichens can be considered as a micro-ecosystem that has mutualistic symbiotic interactions between various organisms and their study is important since it allows us to understand their ecological importance in greater depth.

9) Martinez-Vargas & Pérez-yTerrón, 2020.pdf

Volume 5, number 19

1 Portada y contenido Vol 5 No 19 new.pdf

Cover, content and editorial board

Editorial 5(19) AyTBUAP. What do we need to know about Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs)?

Abdelali Daddaoua iD

Download citation (RIS): Daddaoua, 2020 AyTBUAP 5(19):i-iv

Publication date: August 27th 2020

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Abstract

Abstract

Human milk contains oligosaccharides (OSLH) with a prebiotic effect. They are complex and have a wide structural variety. More than 130 different structures have been identified as part of the functional foods (FA) used by both the food and pharmaceutical industries. These OSLHs have been described as having a unique and important role in the growth and development of the child. Especially during the first months of life, these contribute to the establishment of the intestinal microbiota. In this context, due to their structure, OSLHs can act as receptors for viruses and bacteria, blocking their adherence to eukaryotic cells and therefore preventing infection. Additionally, OSLH are essential for the development of the newborn's immune system, but also for the protection and modulation of the immune response in the adult.

In general, oligosaccharides are essential for the healthy development of people and in times of COVID-19, multidisciplinary strategies are those that will safeguard the quality of life, trying to maintain a balance for a correct diet and a strengthened immunity. In this issue of Alliances and Trends BUAP 5 (19), 3 original articles and 3 reviews were published. The knowledge developed to date could serve as the basis for better agricultural production, better nutrition and stimulation of human health, but if this strategy is exceeded by a viral infection, an effective response against diseases must be implemented with the use of drugs and vaccines directed against the virus in question.

Keywords: OSHL, intestinal microbiota, BUAP Alliances, Trends.

2 Editorial_ALIMENTOS FUNCIONALES_HMOs Daddaoua.pdf

Interaction among strains of phosphorus solubilizing fungi and different nitrogen sources on the phosphorus solubilization and mineralization

Rosa María Arias Mota* iD, Miriam Lagunes Reyes, José Antonio García Pérez, Yadeneyro de la Cruz Elizondo

Download citation (RIS): Arias y cols., 2020 AyTBUAP 5(19): 1-19

Publication date: August 27th 2020

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Abstract

Abstract

Background: Phosphorus solubilizing fungi depend on the nutrients of the medium for their development and, according to the available nutritional sources, they use alternative metabolic pathway in the solubilization and mineralization processes. Objective: Evaluate the effect of interaction between two of phosphorus solubilizing fungi strains (alone and consortium) with different nitrogen sources on the phosphorus solubilization and phosphatase production at greenhouse level. Methods: The strains used, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium brevicompactum, both were inoculated into tomato plants Solanum lycopersicum. Different nitrogen sources (ammonium phosphate, urea and asparagine) and tricalcium phosphate were added to each plant. During a month and every two days, the soluble phosphorus content was quantified and the pH was measured. At the end of the month, the enzymatic activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases was measured. Results and discussion: The data obtained showed that A. niger strain with ammonium sulfate induced the highest concentration of soluble phosphorus and the highest activity of acid phosphatases on day 28. A negative relationship between soluble phosphorus and the pH of the substrate was detected; which suggested that phosphorus solubilization occurred mainly by the production of organic acids. The positive relationship detected between soluble phosphorus and phosphatase production suggests that phosphorous mineralization and solubilization occurred simultaneously. It is important to highlight that the presence of the fungi inoculated in the substrate of the plants was evidenced.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, Penicillium brevicompactum, tricalcium phosphate, urea, asparagine, ammonium sulfate.

3 Arias et al., 2020 Editado.pdf

Growth enhancement of Huaquechula criollo peanut by rhizospheric bacteria applied individually or in consortium

Ariana de Jesús-Ramos iD, Antonino Baez iD, Dalia Molina-Romero iD, Jesús Muñoz-Rojas* iD, Yolanda Elizabeth Morales-García** iD

Download citation (RIS): de Jesús-Ramos y cols. 2020 AyTBUAP 5(19): 20-40

Publication date: August 27th 2020

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Abstract

Abstract

Peanut is a plant widely grown around the world. In this work some conditions to successfully germinate peanut seeds were explored. In addition, the ability of Azospirillum brasilense Sp7, Paraburkholderia unamae MTl-641, Pseudomonas putida KT2440, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAl 5 and Sphingomonas sp. OF178 to adhere to seeds, colonize the rhizosphere and stimulate the plant growth was explored; both alone or in consortium. Peanut seeds without sterilization and with tegument were the best to germinate. All the bacterial species explored were able to adhere to the seeds and colonize the rhizosphere of plants, rhizospheric colonization of Sphingomonas sp. OF178, A. brasilense Sp7 and P. putida KT2440 in consortium was higher compared to their individual colonization, suggesting that some bacteria increase their interaction capability in the consortium. Stem length was increased after individual inoculation of most bacteria. A. brasilense Sp7 increased the growth of plant roots and Sphingomonas sp. OF178 increased the root dry weight. Interestingly, the bacterial consortium increased both stem and root length as well as root dry weight, suggesting synergism between bacteria to enhance plant development. In the germination process, the seeds inoculated with the bacteria consortium showed less contamination by fungi with reference to non-inoculated seeds; it suggests, that biocontrol of phytopathogenic fungi that affect the seed during germination, could be a mechanism involved in growth promotion of peanut.

Keywords: Peanut, PGPR, Rhizosphere, Adhesion to seeds, Bacterial colonization.

4 de Jesús-Ramos et al., 2020 Editado.pdf

Anxiety and depression in undergraduate students of natural and exact sciences at BUAP-Mexico

Abdi G. González-Benitez, Luis D. Luna-Centeno, Victorino Alatriste, Alan Carrasco-Carballo iD, Isabel Martínez, Liliana Martínez, Daniel Limón iD, Félix Luna iD*

Download citation (RIS): González-Benitez y cols., 2020 AyTBUAP 5(19): 41-55

Publication date: August 27th 2020

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Abstract

Abstract

Anxiety and depression are human neuropsychological diseases with high impact factor in academic performance. The aim of this study was to understand the prevalence of anxiety and depression among a population of college students in BUAP-México. We included 497 volunteer students enrolled within the natural and exact areas, of which 59.5 % were women and 40.5 % were men, ranging in age between 19-25 years old, without declared previous diagnosis or medical treatment. We used the Goldberg EADG scale to estimate precondition and condition levels of anxiety and depression neuropsychological disease. The results indicated that in women and men, the prevalence of anxiety was 64.4 and 48.2%, respectively, whereas for depression it was 54.4 and 49.7%, respectively. These results demonstrated a high prevalence of anxiety and depression among BUAP-México college students, with higher levels in women than in men. These results suggest that relationships between students and professors, in addition to administrative and directive personnel, should be should be reviewed in future research. Additionally, a shift in the focus of college pedagogical policies may be considered with the ultimate propose of avoiding attrition and increasing academic performance.

Keywords: Anxiety, depression, college students, scale Goldberg EADG.

5 Abdi G. González et al., 2020 Editado.pdf

Antivirals, therapies and vaccine candidates against the emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS-CoV-2)

Esmeralda Escobar-Muciño*iD, Adriana Gamboa-Pérez**iD

Download citation (RIS): Escobar-Muciño y Gamboa-Pérez, 2020 AyTBUAP 5(19): 56-88

Publication date: August 27th 2020

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Abstract

Abstract

The emerging outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread worldwide. Until now, there are not specific therapeutic agents against coronavirus infection. There are reported a limited number of these treatments with the potential to apply in the clinical environment, in many cases the new antivirals have been tested, by searching from compound libraries to carry out a screening to find an antiviral effect through in vitro (through cloning and molecular docking) and in vivo experimentation (in cell lines) and illness patients to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and in the future to cure sick patients. Reason why the purpose of the present study was to direct society in general and to inform the characteristics and mechanisms of antivirals and therapies used as proposals against COVID-19 disease. On the other hand, the pharmaceutical industries around the world are creating experimental vaccines to counteract the coronavirus due to the rapid spread of COVID-19. The companies that are developing the vaccines are in experimental phases III and IV, considering themselves the most advanced and produced by the companies Sinovac; the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine developed by Sinovac, the vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 of AstraZeneca investigated in conjunction with the University of Oxford and (United Kingdom), also the company La Moderna (United States) and finally Pfizer in collaboration with BioNTech (United States). All vaccines focusing on infection prevention and the possibility of a second wave of this pandemic. For these reasons, the technologies of certain vaccines were described in more detail, as well as the preclinical and the experimentation phases (I-IV).

Keywords: Antivirals, coronaviruses, coronavirus molecular targets, therapies, and vaccines.

6 Escobar Muciño Editado.pdf

Antivirulence therapy as a strategy against multidrug-resistant bacteria

Ixchell Y. Sedillo-Torres, J. Antonio Ibarra-García iD*

Bajar cita (RIS): Sedillo-Torres e Ibarra-García, 2020 AyTBUAP 5(19): 89-104

Publication date: September 2th 2020

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Abstract

Abstract

The increase in the emergence of bacterial strains resistant to antibiotics commonly used for their treatment has become a global health problem that has been recognized by the WHO and that must be addressed immediately. Not doing it implies that humanity might arrive to a point in which the treatment of bacterial infections with conventional antibiotics would not be possible any more. It is estimated that this problem will become one of the main causes of death by 2050 and that, if previsions are not taken with new strategies to avoid them, these statistics may become real. In this work we resume the bacterial resistance mechanisms and some alternatives for their treatment are considered. Here we focused on the antivirulence therapy because we believe as a feasible auxiliary in the treatment of multidrug resistant bacteria. This one has as a main feature to inhibit or block the expression of virulence factors present in pathogenic bacteria without interfering in essential processes for bacterial viability.

Keywords: Antibiotics, antimicrobial resistance, antivirulence therapy, virulence factors.

7 Sedillo e Ibarra Editado.pdf

The origin, molecular characteristics, infection mechanism, evasion of innate and adaptive immunity against SARS-CoV-2, symptoms and molecular markers of COVID-19

Adriana Gamboa-Pérez 1* iD, Esmeralda Escobar-Muciño1** iD, María Leticia Ramírez-Castillo2 iD

Download citation (RIS): Gamboa-Pérez y cols., 2020 AyTBUAP 5(19): 105-144

Publication date: September 6th 2020

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Abstract

Abstract

The emerging outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the virus of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that to date has spread worldwide, has caused concern throughout society, because there were reported cases of COVID-19 critical patients with multiorgan failure as a consequence of acquiring a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Likewise, a cause of this health emergency, due to the high number of cases and deaths reported by COVID-19, the governments of the countries where this disease has occurred, asked citizens to stay in their homes to reduce the transmission. This situation has affected the daily life of the majority of human beings due to isolation due to the current pandemic and consequentlythe world economy has been affected, because only companies with essential activities have been able to continue in operation. This review aims to provide information on the origin of the emerging coronavirus, the physiological and molecular characteristics, the mechanism of virus infection, the relationship of SARS-CoV-2 with the ACE2 receptor, the innate and immune response of humans and the relationship with cytokine release syndrome. Also, various published studies were compared to obtain a consensus on the symptoms presented in COVID-19 patients in various human organs and the determination of immunological elements, which are reported as molecular biomarkers to obtain a faster and more efficient prognosis and the response of a COVID-19 patient.

Keywords: ACE2 receptor mechanism, coronavirus, COVID-19, molecular markers for coronavirus, molecular targets for coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2.

8 Gamboa y cols. Editado.pdf

Volume 5, number 18

1 Portada y contenido.pdf

Cover, content and editorial board

Editorial 5(18) AyT BUAP

Martín Pérez-Santos

Abstract

In these days you remembered our existence, in these days you remembered that there was a group of women and men doing science. Surely you were wondering why to train as a scientist, that is for quasi-crazy introverts. Today you ask: where are the vaccines for this pandemic? Where are the artificial respirators? Where are the much-needed face masks? Where are the drugs to end this agony? Where are the techniques for managing health staff?

The answers are simple and start from our questions: why do we do science without your government support? Why do we set up our laboratories with our own financial resources? How is our salary enough to train professionals, produce science and invent? Why do you invest so much in weapons when your managers fail and associate with organized crime? Why does your intellectual property system give preference to granting patents to foreigners and with us it takes more than 7 years to grant them? Why don't we have the opportunity to rejoin ourselves as teachers and scientists? Why have we had the same categories for 12 years?

To see more, download the PDF file.

2 Editorial.pdf

miRNA let-7b inhibitors by treatment of diabetic retinopathy: evaluation patent US2019093106

Martín Pérez-Santos

Abstract

Introduction: diabetic retinopathy is a clinical complication that affects to a 93 million people suffering from diabetes and is responsible for more hospitalizations than any other complication of diabetes. Authors of US2019093106 patent propose a method for treatment of diabetic retinopathy. Areas covered: US2019093106 describes a method that consists of the administration of inhibitor of miRNA let-7b, in patients with diabetic retinopathy; additionally describe a method to inhibiting the effects of increased levels or activity of miRNA let-7b. Expert opinion: The results pre-clinical trials support the therapy’s efficacy; however, the invention is not new considering art state, whereby, new studies will be necessary to determine other administration routes, e.g. topical, dose and time of administration.

3 miRNA let-7b inhibitors by treatment of diabetic retinopathy evaluation patent US2019093106.pdf

Laparoscopic cystectomy in complicated hydatidosis

Alba Martos Rosa, Juan Enrique Martínez de la Plata, María de Gador López Martín

Abstract

Introduction: Hydatidosis, also known as echinococcosis, is the infection produced by the larvae (hydatids) of the species of the genus Echinococcus. It is a zoonotic parasitosis caused by cestodes of the species E. granulosus and E. multilocularis, which produce unilocular and multilocular or alveolar hydatidosis, respectively. According to geographical distribution, E. granulosus is the most relevant cystic form in Spain. The E. granulosus life cycle needs two host to complete. The host becomes infected by ingesting herbivorous viscera containing the hydatid cyst. The natural history implies the rupture of the cyst in 50-90% of the cases, giving rise to anaphylactic shock due to its high antigenic load. The diagnosis is mainly indirect through serological and radiological techniques. Imaging tests help identify the location, size, and number of the lesions. The treatment of hydatidosis consists of the surgical removal of the cyst using invasive techniques or laparoscopy, punction-aspiration-injection-reaspiration (PAIR) technique under ultrasound control and / or pharmacological treatment.

Objective: To describe a clinical case of hydatid cyst and its drug-surgical management.

Case description: Patient with radiological diagnosis, by ultrasound and computerized axial tomography, of multivesicular cystic lesion admitted to the Hospitalization Unit for clinical-surgical management of hydatid cyst. Extraction is performed by laparoscopy, after preparation with scolicidal solution to decrease the risk of anaphylactic shock due to cyst rupture. Favorable evolution of analytical parameters. Antiparasitic drugs, albendazole associated with praziquantel, were used as support measures before surgery.

Conclusions: Surgical removal by laparotomy is the choice to control parasitic infection and reduce associated risks. The use of scolicidal solutions minimizes the risk of anaphylactic shock due to rupture of the cyst. The combination of PAIR and albendazole offers greater efficacy, a lower recurrence rate, less morbidity and mortality, and a shorter hospital stay. The association of praziquantel exerts a synergistic effect.

4 Martos Rosa et al., 2020.pdf

Biological role of genes located on a genomic island in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Mireia Tena-Garitaonaindia, Manuel Rubio-Gómez, Diego Ceacero Heras, Olga Martínez-Augustin, Abdelali Daddaoua

Abstract

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an omnipresent Gram negative opportunistic human pathogen that is not considered part of the human commensal intestinal microbiota. However, depletion of the intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) after antibiotic treatment facilitates colonization of the intestinal tract by multiple drug P. aeruginosa resistant. A possible alternative to conventional treatments is based on the use of functional foods with prebiotic activity. The bifidogenic

effect of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) is well established; it has been shown to promote the growth of specific beneficial intestinal bacteria such as bifidobacteria. Previous studies of the nosocomial opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 have shown that FOS reduce the growth and formation of biofilms, due to a decrease in motility and exotoxin secretion. However, the transcriptional basis of these phenotypic alterations remains unclear. To address this question, an RNA sequence analysis (RNAseq) was performed that allowed us to detect the presence of a genomic island formed by 15 genes which are repressed in the presence of FOS. Previously, it was demonstrated by the functional analysis of isogenic mutants, that the genes PA0643, PA0644 and PA0646, located in this genomic island, encode proteins involved in growth, biofilm formation, motility. In this context, this work reflected the implication of these genes in the modulation of the inflammatory response.

5 Tena-Garitaonaindia et al 2020.pdf

Chronic gastritis and gastric cancer

Ana Luisa Galicia-Zamalloa, María Alicia Díaz y Orea

Abstract

Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of mortality and the fifth leading cause of cancer worldwide. Similarly, chronic gastritis is a disease with high morbidity and mortality worldwide, whose main risk factor is Helicobacter pylori bacteria. The latter is diagnosed by endoscopy and histological confirmation, and since it is usually asymptomatic, there is a risk of metaplasia, dysplasia and cancer. One of the main strategies for the prevention of both diseases is the eradication of H. pylori.

6 Galicia-Zamalloa y Diaz Y Orea 2020.pdf

Volume 5, number 17

1 Portada y contenido Vol 5 No 17.pdf

Cover, content and editorial board


Editorial 5(17). Urgent changes in agricultural practices to mitigate the climate change

Jesús Muñoz-Rojas

Abstract

Without a doubt, one of the main problems facing the planet is environmental pollution, derived from human practices. The emission of industrial and automobile gases, as well as garbage are examples of the pollutants that are produced in cities every day, but in agricultural fields it also contributes strongly to environmental problems. In fact, the combined nitrogen added to the crops causes various adverse effects such as eutrophication, NOx production, acid rain and weakening of the ozone layer. It is imperative to carry out strategies to mitigate climate change, one of them is the use of beneficial microorganisms that stimulate plant growth and prevent too much nitrogen fertilizer from being used. Furthermore, these microorganisms can perform biological control against phytopathogenic fungi, preventing the use of anticancer compounds in agriculture. The implementation of beneficial microorganisms should not be limited to traditional agriculture, it should also have an impact on urban agriculture, more and more households must have plants in the cities, it should be a commitment by everyone to have plants from our trenches and contribute to the reversal of pollution. Riding a bicycle instead of a car, not using plastics (joining the de-lamination) and encouraging bioremediation initiatives are daily practices that we must urgently implement. For this reason, we invite everyone to join these practices immediately for a better coexistence with the other beings on this planet and for an environment more compatible with life.

In this issue we present 4 articles, the first is a review article that shows how to protect the tomato with the use of beneficial microorganisms without the use of agrochemicals. The second article is an original work that shows a strategy to bioremediate lead with water lily. The third article is a review related to the isolation and use of heavy metal resistant halophilic microorganisms in plants as a possible growth strategy in hostile areas. Finally, the last article performs a patent evaluation for the compound Liraglutide as a potential drug for the treatment of diabetic foot. We hope that this number of Alliances and Trends is a trigger for new projects from our readers and that they share this knowledge among their acquaintances. Recently, the journal was indexed in International Scientific Indexing (ISI) and Academic Scientific Resource (ResearchBib), therefore we invite the scientific community to submit proposals to Alliances and Trends for publication in Spanish and English. We are committed to the evaluation by experts in the different disciplines and to giving a quick response for the publication of the manuscripts.

2 Editorial Vol 5 No 17.pdf

Protecting the tomato: up to date biocontrol

Dulce Aideé García-Nieto, Vianey Marín-Cevada, Tlauiskalotl Montes-Reyes

Abstract

The increasing agricultural activity has led to the use of different strategies for the control of phytopathogens that affect both the harvest process and the post-harvest level. The tomato is a fruit, which, due to its characteristics, is exposed to being attacked by various phytopathological agents (fungi, bacteria, nematodes, etc.) which causes significant losses worldwide. However, chemical agents have been used as a first option and the excessive use of these has left havoc in the environment, as well as in human health. Knowing the consequences of this overuse of chemicals, the need arises to seek alternatives that ensure protection to agriculture, but in turn have no consequences on the environment. This has driven the search and development of new alternatives to chemical agents. Alternatives of which biocontrol has stood out in recent years. Therefore, in the present work it is intended to make a review of different biocontrol methods, as well as their advantages and microorganisms on which they act. Leaving open the development of new strategies that help the protection of the tomato.

3 Protegiendo al jitomate Biocontrol al día Vol 5 No 17.pdf

Lead bioremediation model using water lily

Antonio Miguel-Barrera, Dolores Castañeda-Antonio, Juana Deysi Santamaría-Juárez, José Antonio Munive-Hernández, Antonio Rivera-Tapia, María Elena Ramos-Cassellis

Abstract

Background: Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the plants with better reproduction and adaptability to polluted environments, studies have shown that water lily is a collector of heavy metals in the water; taking advantage of its fast growth and ease of collection. Objective: To evaluate the elimination of lead (Pb) using the water lily as a bioaccumulator in a bioremediation process. Methodology: Analyzes were performed for the characterization of water lily and water. Water lily was collected, the requirement was sometimes a period of pre-adaptation, subsequently, it was placed in different tests with the water collected from an oxidation lagoon and lead as a contaminant. The duration of the trials was 15 days, in which the water lily was in direct contact with the contaminated water, during this period the behavior of the lily was monitored. Results: the tap water does not have lead, the lagoon water had a concentration of 0.025 mg/L lead, control water had a concentration of 3.14 mg/L lead, having a final removal of 13.05% in the water in bioaccumulation samples. The lily already contained a significant value of lead at the start of the 0.127 mg/kg test, with the addition of lead at the beginning of the experiment it gives us a value of 0.169 mg/kg, obtaining a value end of the experiment of 0.284 mg/kg which indicates a 91.84% increase in lead content in 15 day; which confirms the bioabsorption power of metals for this plant with the capacity to absorb more than 90 times its weight in water

4 Modelo de biorremediación de plomo con lirio acuático Modelo de biorremediación de plomo con lirio acuático Vol 5 No 17.pdf

Saline soils: source of metal-resistant and plant-associated halophilic microorganisms

Joseph Guevara-Luna, Iván Arroyo-Herrera, Yanely Bahena-Osorio, Brenda Román-Ponce, María Soledad Vásquez-Murrieta

Abstract

The salinity in soils represents an extension of 1128 million hectares worldwide, considering the area affected naturally (primary) or man-induced (secondary). Therefore, a tendency to increase in the next years is estimated, representing a problem in agricultural activity due to physiological and biochemical changes in plant metabolism, affecting food production. The current research looking for restore or take advantage of these soils, as is the case of studying the microorganisms present and possible interactions with some plants. The objective of this work is to address aspects on the capacity of microorganisms present by activating mechanisms of tolerance, resistance and promotion of plant growth in the presence of potentially salts and toxic metals that reduce damage. Nowadays, the use of molecular techniques has been one of the main tools to identify microorganisms present and the relation the molecules involved in resistance to the presence of salts (transporters and synthesis of compatible solutes). Halophiles microorganisms can produce enzymes, synthesize extracellular polymeric substances, phytohormones and chelating compounds, help some plants to grow in these environments and also carry out a desalination of these soils. Having a great capacity to adapt and potential for be proposed in various bioprocesses

5 Suelos salinos fuente de microorganismos halófilos asociados a plantas y resistentes a metales Vol 5 No17.pdf
5 Figura 1 Guevara-Luna et al.pdf

Evaluation of US2019070266 patent, treatment diabetic foot ulcers with Liraglutide

Martín Pérez-Santos

Resumen

Diabetic foot ulcers are clinical complications that affect to a 15-25% of patients of type-2 diabetes mellitus and are responsible for more hospitalizations than any other complication of diabetes. Authors of US2019070266 patent propose a method for treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. US2019070266 describes a method that consists of the administration of Liraglutide, at a dose of 1.2-1.8 mg, in patients with type 2 diabetes and with at least one risk factor for vascular disease, such as microalbuminuria, proteinuria, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and ankle/brachial index <0.9. The results of the clinical trials support the therapy’s efficacy; however, the invention is not new considering art state, whereby, new studies will be necessary to determine other administration routes, e.g. topical, dose and time of administration of Liraglutide.

6 Liraglutide in diabetic foot ulcer US2019070266.pdf

Volume 4, number 16

A 4(16) Portada y editorial.pdf

Editorial 4(16)

Martín Pérez-Santos

Abstract

This year we concluded the Decade of Immunotherapy and the news could not be more encouraging. This year the FDA approved more than a dozen drugs, based on immunotherapy, for various types of cancer. In the same way, this decade ends with the shared awarding of the 2018 Nobel Prize in Cancer Immunotherapy for Tasuku Honjo (left) and James P. Allison (right). Dr. Tasuku Honjo, from the University of Kyoto (Japan) identified the molecule PD-1, a repressor of immune defenses against cancer, whose multiple inhibitors are used successfully in various types of cancer. For his part, Dr. James P. Allison, from the MD Anderson Cancer Center (EU) discovered how to slow down the function of the CTLA-4 protein, a receptor that works as an immune checkpoint that decreases immune responses. For this reason, Alliances and Trends BUAP® pays tribute to these scientists through a series of review and research articles. The first of these is related to therapeutic targets and targeted monoclonal antibodies targeting tumor cells in gastric cancer. The second deals with a trend analysis of publications and clinical studies related to the immune control molecule SLAMF7. Subsequently, the third article describes the research trends related to CTLA-4. Next, PD-1 research trends are discussed. Finally, in the last article the state of the art of drugs directed against TIM-3 is analyzed. It should be noted that, with the exception of the first article, the articles are part of the research work of students of the subject "Immune System" of the Bachelor of Biomedicine of the Faculty of Medicine of the Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla.

Therapeutic targets and monoclonal antibodies in gastric cancer

María Guadalupe González González, María Alicia Díaz y Orea, Mónica Heredia Montaño

Abstract

Monoclonal antibodies are proteins responsible for the specific recognition of antigenic molecules, in recent decades they have been used in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases, including gastric cancer; however, a first-line therapeutic scheme has not yet been established with any of them. A review of the international literature in PubMed, SCOPUS and Medline of the articles related to the treatment of gastric cancer based on monoclonal antibodies is performed, in which the keywords were used, including articles in English, original and reviews, with no more than 10 years old. Conclusion: there are a wide variety of monoclonal antibodies that in diferent clinical studies have shown to have a favorable effect on the survival and rate of disease progression; however, some of them have not yet been approved as first-line treatments for this condition, due to the lack of more evidence about its safety and efficacy.

B 4(16) González et al 2019 1-14.pdf

SLAMF7 receptor associated to cancer

María Fernanda González De La Torre, Alicia Esmeralda Islas Montiel

Abstract

Receptors of the family of lymphocytic activation signaling molecules (SLAM) are membrane surface glycoproteins present in human immunological cells. SLAMF has physiological expression in T cells where it intervenes in cell differentiation. Under certain pathological conditions, such as some types of hematological cancer, it has been observed that in NK cells their overexpression simulates new arrangements of the cytoeskeleton of tumor cells and their adherence to macrophages to promote phagocytosis through the family of intracellular adapters associated with SLAM (SAP), in order to block the mechanisms of immunological evasion of tumor cells and prevent cell proliferation or metastasis. The development of biomedical research on SLAMF7 during this century was investigated in the PubMed database and clinical research in the registry of clinical trials Clinical/Trials.gov and of the drugs available in Orange Book.

C 4(16) González de la Torre et al 2019 15-21.pdf

CTLA-4: a receptor inhibitor of T lymphocytes

Marino Armando Anduaga Armenta

Abstract

CTLA-4 is a CD28 homolog expressed on the surface of T lymphocytes. CTLA-4 is transiently expressed on the surface of early activated CD8 T cells; however, its expression is constitutive in T-regulators. Inhibition of CD8 T cells by CTLA-4 is twofold: the coupling of CD80 and CD86 costimulatory molecules to CTLA-4 in CD8 T cells, resulting in dephosphorylation of signaling proteins such as CD3, leading to lymphocyte inhibition T. In this work, a search was made in PubMed and NIH to find information for both the introduction and the graphs that will be presented below that reflect the number of articles related to CTLA-4 that have been published each year since the year 2000 to 2019, as well as the existing clinical trials and the different phases in which they are found.

D 4(16) Anduaga 2019 22-24.pdf

Inhibition of the immune system in cancer by the PD-1 receptor

Joana Barbosa Gómez, Ernesto Cortes Gallardo

Abstract

Introduction. In the area of cancer research, immune control point inhibitors are taking great importance as cancer treatments. PD-1 protein is involved in the process of immune evasion of malignant cells, improving tumor cell growth and promoting apoptosis in T cells. Interactions between PD-1 and its ligands play a key immonoregulatory role in activation and tolerance of T lymphocytes. So this document investigated the current existence of certain drugs that have certain mechanisms related to the activity of this protein and its biomedical importance as a treatment in this pathology. Development: A search was conducted with the oibjetive of elucidating the current state of research on PD-1 protein and its therapeutic involvement in cancer. Different studies and clinical trials were consulted through the NCBI and Clinical Trials and Orange Book plataforms. Conclusion: An exponential increase was observed in biomedical research publications of PD1-Cancer from 2009 to a maximun peak in 2018 but a decrease after this. Related clinical trials have been carried out during phase 1, and Nivolumab and Pembrolizumab among others are among teh commercially available drugs.

E 4(16) Barbosa y Cortés 2019 25-30.pdf

State of the art in drugs against TIM-3

Miriam Yesenia Cortés Sánchez, Edgar Ivan Galarce Sosa

Abstract

Several properties of TIM-3 make it an ideal target for the next generation of immunotherapeutic drugs. Accumulated data support the concept of blocking TIM-3 can increase cell-mediated antitumor immune responses. The participation of TIM-3 in the progression or even the appearance of various types of cancer is constantly being revealed, which will give way to a deep understanding of the functions of the different types of cells that express TIM-3 in various models of immunotherapy is crusial for further development of the drug targeting TIM-3.

F 4(16) Cortés y Galarce 2019 31-41.pdf

Volume 4, number 15

A 4(15) Portada y editorial.pdf

Editorial 4(15). Financing problems for small groups in Mexico

Jesús Muñoz-Rojas

Abstract

The generation of frontier knowledge is a very important task for the development of the country, the alignment of research to the problems facing Mexico is key to the success and use of that knowledge. The month of October is key for submitting projects in Mexico through the CONACYT National Strategic Program for Technology and Open Innovation (PENTA) and Frontiers of Science. Despite the changes made in this type of projects to strengthen research groups and improve the quality of results that impact on the improvement of the country, the form of evaluation for the allocation of resources has yet to mature. Unfortunately, in a disguise of “open competition”, the distribution of resources to do science in Mexico has not been democratic, on the contrary, it has been uneven and has normally favored the largest groups. The productivity gap between highly funded groups relative to small and low-funded groups is widening. The operating rules are easily complied with by highly funded groups in order to compete for resources, both from projects and from SNI research incentives (National System of Researchers).

Therefore, attention must be paid to this point or in the near future we will experience disastrous consequences of inequity and we could miss out on highly relevant ideas generated in small or nascent research groups. A proposal to streamline the distribution of resources is that it be carried out from automatic platforms that look at productivity via valid international indices such as the H index. Based on this parameter, the distribution of financial resources could be established and not groups that work hard would be left unprotected despite not being part of large research entities, a robot would not favor anyone and would measure all the researchers who compete in the same way. With this proposal, the global money bag for research could be distributed according to the score assigned by the robot, favoring those who work the most and not “the quality of the project”, which is often ambiguous depending on the evaluators; who rule and determine if a project is accepted or not. In addition, a robot could have the minimum amount programmed to be assigned to researchers who do their job considering their overall productivity history. As a propositional part of the solution to these problems, Alliances and Trends invites small research groups to submit publication proposals to disseminate their work despite being works that do not have high technology for solving questions of interest. These papers may not meet the demands of high-impact journals, but they answer questions that should be known to the scientific society, industry, the agricultural sector, the social sector, and interested people. In the present number of Alliances and Trends BUAP (Year 4, Number 15), we present three articles, the first is an original article that proposes a simple method to estimate parameters of potential between pairs: pressure-volume-temperature properties of benzene by molecular simulation Monte Carlo, the second article shows a review related to the benefits and harm that can be caused by strains of the genus Klebsiella and the third article reviews literature related to the secretome of strains of the genus Bacillus; a bacterium of high interest for the elimination of pathogenic fungi. We hope that this number of Alliances and Trends is a trigger for new projects from our readers and that they share this knowledge among their acquaintances.

Simple method to estimate potential parameters between pairs: pressure-volume-temperature properties of benzene using Monte Carlo molecular simulation

A. Elías-Domínguez, M. Torres-Suárez, F. Pérez-Villaseñor, A. Castro-Agüero, A. Ortiz-Arroyo, M.V. Hernández-Ruíz, E. Reyes-Pérez, M.R. Castillo-Estrada

Abstract

Pressure of pure benzene is calculated using a molecular Monte Carlo simulation technique in the canonical ensemble with the molecular virial equation, data was calculated in a temperature span of 513.15 to 628.15 Kelvin, considering two cases. In the first instance, constant density of 0.9144 mol/L is used and in the second case density is spanned from 0.8829 mol/L to 2.1336 mol/L, with values calculated using the molecular model of united atoms with exponential-6 interactions. The estimations obtained by molecular simulation show average errors of 9.12% from the experimental data for constant density and 16.70% for variable density case. To improve data prediction, a simple method to estimate the parameters of the exponential-6 potential is proposed, the estimation method is based on the extrapolation of the error prediction value to zero, from a linear adjustment of the error. The parameters obtained were used to recalculate the pressure of pure benzene at the same temperature and density conditions, predicted data showed an average error of 0.68% for constant density and 2.29% for variable density.

B 4(15) Elías-Domínguez et al., 2019 1-15.pdf

The multifaceted personality of the genus Klebsiella: The good, the bad and the ugly

María Rosete-Enríquez, Verónica Quintero-Hernández, Yolanda Elizabeth Morales-García, Osvaldo Rodríguez-Andrade, América Paulina Rivera-Urbalejo

Abstract

The multifaceted personality of genus Klebsiella is evident because the species Klebsiella variicola, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca belonging to this genus, have been traditionally classified as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, as pathogens or as pathobionts. In fact, there are numerous genetic, morphological and physiological characteristics that are used to identify and classify these species based on their activities beneficial or damaging from the human point view. However, depending on genetic background and environmental conditions K. variicola, K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca can remodel their activities and behave differently than classically described. Therefore, the objective of this work is to review the classification attributes of these three species of genus Klebsiella, and same time provide examples that demonstrate that these same species can remodel their known classical activities to adapt to different conditions. The presentation of these evidences invites reflection on general aspects about classification and plasticity of exchange of information between the genome and environment to adjust the metabolism of bacteria.

C 4(15) Rosete Enríquez et al 2019 16-35.pdf

Importance of the Bacillus spp. secretome in the biological control of phytopathogenic fungi

Bruce Manuel Morales-Barrón, Raquel González-Fernández, Francisco J. Vázquez-González, Antonio De La Mora-Covarrubias, Miroslava Quiñonez-Martínez, Jesús Muñoz-Rojas, José Valero-Galván

Abstract

The genera of Bacillus have a big protein secretion involucre to the antagonism process of phytopathogens fungi, this process is studied by the finality to find the way of fight the damage causes because are registrant economics and environmental losses. The studies of species the bacillus genera could be secrete a wide range of proteins and this can be variety according to the medium in which they are found, which indicates that depending on the organism they face, there may be variations in the secreted proteins, for this reason the importance of studying the secreted proteins benefits in the production of specific inoculants for the phytopathogenic fungi. Therefore, the present review presents the action of protein secretion that the genus Bacillus has had against phytopathogenic fungi.

D 4(15) Morales-Barrón et al 2019 36-48.pdf

Volume 4, number 14